This book critically analyzes the water quality in the lower Gangetic delta, and examines the environmental conditions and physical processes operating in this rich ecosystem. Readers with an interest in environmental science, geography, oceanography, marine biology, environmental biology, aquatic pollution and ecology will find the research presented here most appealing.
Readers will discover critical aspects of the chemistry of the estuarine water (particularly that of Hooghly and Matla estuaries) in the lower stretch of the delta region along with the causes and effects of pollution in and around this region. Particular attention is given to the bioaccumulation of conservative pollutants in edible fishes and floral communities thriving in this region. Several case studies are also incorporated to highlight the vulnerability of pollution in this region. Chapters also address the impacts of climate change (specifically acidification) on the concentration and behavior of conservative pollutants. Finally, the book highlights some mitigation measures at the technology and policy level to minimize the negative impacts posed by different groups of pollutants on the estuarine biodiversity.
Mangroves are basically salt tolerant forest ecosystems found mainly in tropical and sub-tropical inter-tidal regions. Till about 1960s, mangroves were largely viewed as "economically unproductive areas" and were therefore destroyed for reclaiming land for various economic and commercial activities. Gradually, with the passage of time, the economic and ecological benefits of mangroves have become visible and their importance is now well appreciated. Today, mangroves are observed in about 30 countries in tropical subtropical regions covering an area of about 99,300 Sq.Km. However, during the past 50 years, over 50% of the mangrove cover has been lost, mainly because of the increased pressure of human activities like shrimp farming and agriculture, forestry, salt extraction, urban development, tourist development and infrastructure. Also, dam on rivers, contamination of sea waters caused by heavy metals, oil spills, pesticides and other products etc. have been found to be responsible for the decline of mangroves. Although the temperature effect on growth and species diversity is not known, sea-level rise may pose a serious threat to these ecosystems The present book addresses all these important issues in separate chapters with some interesting case studies whose data may serve as pathfinder for future researches in the sphere of the influence of climate change on mangrove ecosystem. The role of mangroves in the sector of bioremediation is a unique feather in the crown of this coastal and brackishwater vegetation that may be taken up by the coastal industries in order to maintain the health of ambient environment. This book seeks to discover and to assess the vulnerability of climate change on mangrove flora and fauna, their role in carbon sequestration and some interesting case studies by some groups of dedicated researchers that may serve as the basis of future climate related policies.
The ever increasing emission of carbon dioxide due to rapid industrialization, urbanization, unplanned tourism and alteration of land use pattern is causing unprecedented changes to marine biodiversity. Irrespective of political philosophy, nation, caste, sex and religion, mankind is under the appalling shadow of climate change. Today nature-based approaches for the mitigation of climate change are increasingly accepted as part of the low-cost solution. Thrust has been given by several scientific communities to assess the magnitude and viability of carbon sequestering potential of plants. Coastal producer communities like mangroves, salt marsh grass, seagrass beds, and seaweeds absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis. This carbon known as the `blue carbon' is thus associated with the marine and estuarine ecosystems. However, a number of gaps in our scientific knowledge on blue carbon domain still exist. Molluscs, coral reefs, phytoplankton, which are amongst the important storehouses of carbon, have not been addressed. Very few scientific studies on the carbon stored in these valuable natural vaults have been performed, and no data bank is available on their carbon sequestering capacity on global basis. The methodologies for assessing blue carbon stock also need further standardization so that credit from blue carbon reservoir is accepted by the International bodies in the form of a concrete policy. It is a matter of great appreciation that Conservation International (CI), the International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources (IUCN), and the Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO is collaborating with governments, research institutions, non-governmental and international organizations, and communities around the world to develop management approaches, financial incentives and policy mechanisms for ensuring conservation and restoration of blue carbon ecosystems and implement projects around the world that demonstrate the feasibility of blue carbon accounting, management, and incentive agreements. The present book has critically presented the data bank for each community of blue carbon not merely in the form of text description, but also through case studies that are the outcomes of research projects and pilot programmes.
The book presents recent research on marine ecology in different parts of the world. It aims to shed light on relevant topics for budding marine ecologists.The "blue soup" of Planet Earth, which comprises both biotic and abiotic components, is essential to keeping the wheel of civilization running. Four major ecosystem service categories have been identified within this context, namely provisioning services such as water, food, mangrove timber, honey, fish, wax, fuel wood, fodder and bioactive compounds from marine and estuarine flora and fauna; regulating services such as the regulation of climate, coastal erosion, coral bleaching and pollution; cultural services encompassing recreational (tourism), spiritual and other non-material benefits; and supporting services such as nutrient cycling and photosynthesis. These valuable services are obtained from various resources that must be conserved for the sake of humanity. This book presents data for each resource type, not just in the form of a simple description, but also through case studies that resulted from several research projects and pilot programs carried out in different parts of the world. Statistical tools were also used to critically analyze the influence of relevant hydrological parameters on the biotic community. Advanced research in marine and estuarine ecology is based on the use of sophisticated instruments, sampling precision, statistical tools, etc., which have also been highlighted in the book.
This book provides a cross-sectoral, multi-scale assessment of different environmental problems via in-depth studies of the Indian subcontinent. Data collected from different ecosystems forms a strong foundation to explore the topics discussed in this book. The book investigates how mankind is presently under the appalling shadow of pollution, climate change, overpopulation and poverty. The continuing problem of pollution, loss of forests, disposal of solid waste, deterioration of environment, global warming and loss of biodiversity have made nations aware of environmental issues. Many countries are desperately trying to move away from this adverse situation through technological development and policy level approaches. Through a number of case studies the authors provide details of ground level observations of the most environmentally stressed regions in the Indian subcontinent and beyond.