This book comprehensively reviews the historical background of speleology and cave research in the contexts of archeology and natural sciences. It also offers a summary of selected topics related to the karstic terrain of Turkey. Covering 40 % of the country's surface area, Turkey's karstic terrain accommodates thousands of caves. However, understanding the geology, geomorphology, hydrology, biology, and ecosystem dynamics of these caves is still limited. Despite numerous explorations and extensive fieldwork, this is the first comprehensive publication on the topic since 1984. The book presents the 45 most significant caves in Turkey, selected according to several criteria, including esthetical uniqueness. It covers caves of global archeological importance, such as Karain, Yarimburgaz and Üçagizli, and some of the world's deepest caves, such as Peynirliknü, Kuzgun, Morca, and Çukurpinar. The book includes a survey and a detailed description of the genesis, geology, geomorphology, and exploration history for each cave.