The book provides readers with a clear understanding of infrastructure challenges, how Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) can help, and their use in practice. Infrastructure bottlenecks are generally considered the most important constraint to growth in many countries worldwide. Historically, infrastructure projects have been financed and implemented by the state. However, owing to the fiscal resource crunch, time and cost over-runs, and the general poor quality of publicly provided infrastructure, many emerging market governments, including India, have increasingly adopted PPPs with billions of dollars of investment riding on them. The results have been varied - from spectacular airports like the Delhi International Airport Limited with the associated controversy over land use, to the renegotiation of contracts as in the case of Tata Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project. Illustrating concepts with relevant case studies, the book makes the challenges of PPPs understandable to industry and management practitioners as well as students of management, public policy and economics. It is useful to practitioners wishing to avoid the pitfalls in the tricky terrain of PPPs and policymakers wanting guidance in crafting proper incentives. It also helps students gain a holistic and "applied" understanding of this increasingly important and popular model.
"Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) in India are currently under stress. A comprehensive treatment of the subject by a long-time and erudite practitioner and a management academic, this book should be useful to students trying to learn the basics, while also being valuable to professionals and policy makers. The book suggests that the Government should hold bidders accountable to their submitted bids, thereby preserving sanctity of contract. This will discourage aggressive bidding which has become a serious and endemic problem. The book also suggests the use of better bidding criteria to mitigate traffic risk in transport projects. Policy makers should pay heed to these suggestions as they consider improvements in the PPP policy regime going forward."-Arvind Subramanian, Chief Economic Adviser, India
"For a fast-growing India, infrastructure creation and operation is a great challenge and opportunity. This excellent book combines theory and practice on PPPs, and is very useful for professionals and students alike. With case studies and current developments, the authors bring out issues in India with global experiences as well. A must-read for infrastructure practitioners."-Shailesh Pathak, Chief Executive (Designate), L&T Infrastructure
Development Projects Limited "India's program of private participation in infrastructure attracted worldwide attention as it became one of the largest programs in emerging markets. As well as the volumes of finance mobilized, it garnered interest because of some of the innovative approaches developed, such as Viability Gap Funding. The Indian PPP story is well captured in this book, which also makes the point that India is seeing project cancellations and failures rise. The authors analyze the factors behind this and point the way to a more robust PPP market that learns from the experiences of the past."-Clive Harris, Practice Manager, Public-Private Partnerships, World Bank
This volume focuses on the prospects of the conversion of biomass into biofuels including ethanol, butanol, biogas, biohydrogen, biodiesel, syn-gas and other useful products. Biomass-derived fuels have gained tremendous attention worldwide. However, due to high raw material and processing costs, biofuels produced from lignocelluloses have been found to be more expensive than conventional fuels. Therefore, a concept of biorefining has been introduced, where more than one product or each and every component of biomass may be derived into useful products in a manner of petroleum refinery.
This book presents various computational and cognitive modeling approaches in the areas of health, education, finance, theenvironment, engineering, commerce and industry. Gathering selected conference papers presented atthe International Conference on Trends in Computational and Cognitive Engineering (TCCE), it sharescutting-edge insights and ideas from mathematicians, engineers, scientists and researchers anddiscusses fresh perspectives on problem solving in a range of research areas.
This book is intended as a reference guide for graduate students, postgraduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of protein chemistry who would like to know more about the biomedical applications of natural proteins to promote healthier lives. The book is divided into ten chapters, each of which explains different natural proteins and their established biomedical applications. The first chapter extensively deals with protein based natural fibers and provides an overview of all protein based fibers currently available. In turn, chapter two mainly focuses on the biomedical applications of a special class of proteins called Heat Shock Proteins; the biomedical applications of silkworm pupae proteins are dealt in chapter three. Chapter four examines an interesting use of Eri silk fibroin as a biomaterial for Tissue Engineering, while chapter five discusses the key experimental details involved in converting Tasar silk sericin into self-assembled nanoparticles. Chapter six offers brief descriptions of bioactive proteins with respect to their sources, synthesis and applications. Chapter seven is dedicated to Interleukine-8 and its role in human life, while chapter eight addresses the importance of natural proteins in infectious diseases. Chapter nine explores the issue of excess intake of dietary proteins and its adverse effects, and finally, chapter ten discusses the efficiency of drug delivery systems made up of gelatin nanocomposites. The book is above all intended as a valuable resource for students and researchers alike, sparking their curiosity with regard to the applications of natural proteins and motivating them to focus their own energies on the discovery or identification of additional natural proteins for diverse biomedical uses.
This book deals with quantifying and analyzing the risks associated with sustainable energy technology growth in electric power systems, and developing appropriate models and methodologies to mitigate the risks and improve the overall system performance. The rapid increase in the installation of renewable energy sources in electric power systems has given rise to a wide range of problems related to planning and operation of power systems to maintain quality, stability, reliability and efficiency. Additionally, there is a growing global environmental concern regarding increasing emissions from the electric power generation required to meet rising energy needs and support sustainable and inclusive development. The phenomenon of low voltage ride through (LVRT), common to wind energy systems, is discussed, and ways to tackle the same are proposed in the first chapter. Subsequent chapters propose methods of optimizing a sustainable and smart microgrid, and supplying electricity to remote areas of a developing country with no immediate possibility of national grid extension. The economic benefit and technical challenges of forming localized minigrid are also discussed. The book proposes a method for reliability assessment of a power grid with sustainable power transportation system. The issue of weak link in power system is very important as it will provide the system operators and planners to take necessary measures to strengthen the system. An approach to determine the weak parts of the system and its unreliability is proposed. With increasing installation of HVDC power transmission and development of efficient and low cost power electronic devices, the DC microgrids are becoming a common phenomenon. Their existence together with AC Grids result in Hybrid AC/DC Microgrids, which are discussed in this book. It further presents a method for reliability evaluation of a distribution system with network reconfiguration in the presence of distributed generation. The important problems in sustainable energy growth, and their potential solutions discussed and presented in the book should be of great interest to engineers, policy makers, researchers and academics in the area of electric power engineering.
This book discusses latest advances in the area of bioenergy, including algal biomass, biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanation, pyrolysis, biomass gasification, biomass cook stoves and integrated processes. The volume comprises select proceedings of ICRABR-2016. The contents include cutting-edge research vital to R&D organizations, academics and the industry to promote and document the recent developments in the area of bioenergy for all types of stakeholders. The book highlights the need for biofuels and their market, the barriers and challenges faced by biofuels and bioenergy, and future strategies required to foster new ideas for research, collaboration, and commercialization of bioenergy. It addresses various topics, such as biomass and energy management; thermochemical conversion processes; biochemical conversion processes; catalytic conversion processes; electrochemical processes; waste treatment to harvest energy; and integrated processes. It will prove a valuable resource for students, researchers, professionals and policymakers in the field of biofuels and bioenergy.
This book highlights the recent developments on rhamnolipid biosurfactant, its properties, role on the natural environment and various applications. Recently, it has shown promising application in Environment, Agriculture, food, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries due to its environment-friendly and easily degradable nature. The book emphasizes on the various techniques that are utilized for the detection and isolation of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from microorganisms. It highlights the various aspects of the rhamnolipid biosurfactants including structural characteristics, production, and its application. The book presents the current knowledge and the latest advances in the function-based metagenomics strategies to facilitate the exploration of the novel biosurfactants.
This book highlights research-based case studies in order to analyze the wealth created in the world's largest mergers and acquisitions (M&A). This book encourages cross fertilization in theory building and applied research by examining the links between M&A and wealth creation. Each chapter covers a specific case and offers a focused clinical examination of the entire lifecycle of M&A for each mega deal, exploring all aspects of the process. The success of M&A are analyzed through two main research approaches: event studies and financial performance analyses. The event studies examine the abnormal returns to the shareholders in the period surrounding the merger announcement. The financial performance studies examine the reported financial results of acquirers before and after the acquisition to see whether financial performance has improved after merger. The relation between method of payment, premium paid and stock returns are examined. The chapters also discuss synergies of the deal-cost and revenue synergies.
Mergers and acquisitions represent a major force in modern financial and economic environment. Whether in times of boom or bust, M&As have emerged as a compelling strategy for growth. The biggest companies of modern day have all taken form through a series of restructuring activities like multiple mergers. Acquisitions continue to remain as the quickest route companies take to operate in new markets and to add new capabilities and resources. The cases covered in this book highlights high profile M&As and focuses on the wealth creation for shareholders of acquirer and target firms as a financial assessment of the merger's success. The book should be useful for finance professionals, corporate planners, strategists, and managers.
The world is witnessing a rapid growth in wind and other renewable based electricity generation due to environmental concerns associated with electricity generation from the conventional sources. Wind power behaves quite differently than conventional electric power generating units due to its intermittent and diffuse nature. System planners and operators face the variability and uncertainty of wind power availability, and therefore, encounter considerable challenges in making decisions to maintain the adequacy and security of wind integrated power systems. This volume intends to bring out the original research work of researchers from academia and industry in understanding, quantifying and managing the risks associated with the uncertainty in wind variability in order to plan and operate a modern power system integrated with a significant proportion of wind power generation with an acceptable level of reliability. Accurate modeling of wind power variability and proper incorporation of the models in reliability and risk evaluation is very important for the planning and operation of electric power systems, and will play a crucial role in defining the requirement of various types of resources and services, such as storage and ancillary services in power systems.
This book is about the Himalayan ranges as a source of fresh water supply and a perennial store house of ice, snow and permafrost as well as a vast repository of rich biodiversity, in the light of climate change. Special attention is given to the dynamics of snow and glaciers in the northwestern Himalayas, assessment of climate change patterns, and the consequences of changes and flow regime in order to understand the behaviour of climate change in the northwestern Himalayas. The outcome of melting glaciers are pro-glacial lakes. Their increasing size and potential danger of outbursts requires systematic study, particularly where there is the risk of impact on life and property. Furthermore, the changing trend of the hydrological cycle on a regional or local scale is another area of research which calls for the attention of geoscientists. To date there is a scarcity of reliable data meaning that a concerted effort is still required by all parties.
The volume presents the research work in understanding, modeling and quantifying the risks associated with different ways of implementing smart grid technology in power systems in order to plan and operate a modern power system with an acceptable level of reliability. Power systems throughout the world are undergoing significant changes creating new challenges to system planning and operation in order to provide reliable and efficient use of electrical energy. The appropriate use of smart grid technology is an important drive in mitigating these problems and requires considerable research activities, some of which (by researchers from academia and industry) are included in this volume: the reliability appraisal of smart grid technologies and their applications, micro-grids, assessment of plug-in hybrid vehicles and the system effects, smart system protection and reliability evaluation, demand response and smart maintenance of power system equipment.
This book discusses in detail molecular, mycobiont culture, biomonitoring and bioprospection of lichens, providing insights into advances in different fields of lichenology by applying modern techniques and approaches and examining how their application has enhanced or changed classical approaches. It offers a valuable resource, especially for beginners, students and researchers from different academic backgrounds interested in the study of lichens.
In recent years, the introduction of modern analytical techniques and approaches has significantly improved our understanding of the environment, including lichens. Lichens are unique organisms which possess untapped potential as effective and reliable bioindicators, sources of therapeutic phytochemicals, and as excellent extremophiles. The unique and peculiar characteristics of lichens underline the need for a multidimensional approach to explore their potential in various fields of environment science, botany and chemistry.
Modern techniques, especially molecular techniques, have greatly enriched the field of lichen taxonomy and its position in the plant kingdom, revealing little-known species and exploring their evolutionary history, while multivariate analysis and GIS approaches have established lichens as an ideal and reliable tool for monitoring air pollution. Advanced culture techniques have expanded the pharmacological applications of lichens, which was formerly restricted due to their small biomass. The advent of sophisticated analytical instrumentation has now facilitated the isolation and characterization of lichens' bioactive constituents, even in lower concentrations, as well as the estimation of their stress responses at different levels of pollution. As lichen diversity is adversely affected by increasing air pollution, there is a pressing need to develop effective management practices to conserve, restore and document lichen diversity.
This book provides an overview of the current state of the art in wireless networks around the globe, focusing on utilizing the latest artificial intelligence and soft computing techniques to provide design frameworks for wireless networks. These techniques play a vital role in developing a more robust algorithm suitable for the dynamic and heterogeneous environment, making the network self-managed, self-operational, and self-configurational, and efficiently reducing uncertainties and imprecise information.
The aim of this book is to analyze the nature of European and North American firms' business experience in India with a particular emphasis on understanding the causes of their successes and failure. Part of this is due to the fact that although India resembles the West in some ways, the institutional environment is radically different from that of Euro-American societies. Differences in culture, politics, the economy, and business structure all make it difficult for a Western manager to act accordingly. This book strives to offer Western managers the knowledge they will need to succeed in business in India.
This book explores various intelligent algorithms including evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence-based algorithms for analysis and control of dynamical systems. Both single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems are explored for analysis and control purposes. The applications of intelligent algorithm vary from approximation to optimal control design. The applications of intelligent algorithms not only improve understanding of a dynamical system but also enhance the control efficacy. The intelligent algorithms are now readily applied to all fields of control including linear control, nonlinear control, digital control, optimal control, etc. The book also discusses the main benefits attained due to the application of algorithms to analyze and control.
This book features selected research papers presented at the International Conference on Advances in Information Communication Technology and Computing (AICTC 2019), held at the Government Engineering College Bikaner, Bikaner, India, on 8-9 November 2019. It covers ICT-based approaches in the areas ICT for energy efficiency, life cycle assessment of ICT, green IT, green information systems, environmental informatics, energy informatics, sustainable HCI and computational sustainability.
This book covers advances in system, control and computing. This book gathers selected high-quality research papers presented at the International Conference on Advances in Systems, Control and Computing (AISCC 2020), held at MNIT Jaipur during February 27-28, 2020. The first part is advances in systems and it is dedicated to applications of the artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems, fuzzy system, autonomous and multi-agent systems, machine learning, other intelligent systems and related areas. In the second part, machine learning and other intelligent algorithms for design of control/control analysis are covered. The last part covers advancements, modifications, improvements and applications of intelligent algorithms.
This book examines the development, use, extraction, and recovery of rare earth metals. Rare earth elements (REEs) occupy a key role in daily life in industrial applications. They are one of the critical elements for energy and sustainable growth. REEs are utilized in many modern electrical and electronic devices such as smart phones, computers, LED lights etc. Recovery of the REEs from secondary resources represents a way to meet the growing demand for electronic devices. Because of their rarity, utility, and importance, the recovery, utilization and recycling of rare earth metals is of utmost importance. This book presents both current methods of processing rare earths from primary and secondary sources and new, green routes for their isolation and purification. The book also addresses their utilization, re-use, reduction, and recycling policies that exist globally. Applications in metallurgy, magnets, ceramics, electronics, and chemical, optical, and nuclear technologies are discussed.
This book presents a compilation of current trends, technologies, and challenges in connection with Big Data. Many fields of science and engineering are data-driven, or generate huge amounts of data that are ripe for the picking. There are now more sources of data than ever before, and more means of capturing data. At the same time, the sheer volume and complexity of the data have sparked new developments, where many Big Data problems require new solutions. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable reference guide for all graduate students, researchers, and scientists interested in exploring the potential of Big Data applications.
This book presents select proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Sustainable Technologies (ICAST 2020), organized by Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India. The topics covered include computer aided design (CAD), computer assisted manufacturing (CAM), computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), computer aided engineering (CAE) and product design, dynamics of control structures and systems, solid mechanics: differential and dynamical systems, modelling and simulation. The book also discusses various modern age design tools including finite element analysis, modelling, analysis and simulation of manufacturing processes, process design, automation, mechatronics, robotics and assembly, etc. The book will be useful for beginners, researchers, and professionals interested in the field of sustainable design practices.
This book presents the state of art of the several advanced approaches to beneficiation of coal. The influence of recent technology attains the advantages of processing coal, purification studies, rheological behavior, and the mineral beneficiation. The experts collected in this volume have contributed significantly to the enrichment in the in depth knowledge not only in context of working knowledge, but also future prospects of clean coal technology.
This book presents best selected papers presented at the First Global Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications (GCAIA 2020), organized by the University of Engineering & Management, Jaipur, India, during 8-10 September 2020. The proceeding will be targeting the current research works in the domain of intelligent systems and artificial intelligence.
This book summarizes the emerging trends in the field of antibiotic resistance of various gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. The ability of different species of bacteria to resist the antimicrobial agent has become a global problem. As such, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the advances in our understanding of the origin and mechanism of resistance, discusses the modern concept of the biochemical and genetic basis of antibacterial resistance and highlights the clinical and economic implications of the increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistant pathogens and their ecotoxic effects. It also reviews various strategies to curtail the emergence and examines a number of innovative therapeutic approaches, such as CRISPR, phage therapy, nanoparticles and natural antimicrobials, to combat the spread of resistance.