This book discusses the political and economic history and geography of Georgia, the problems it has faced, and how it has overcome and is still overcoming them. In most countries, at the end of the 20th century the successful resolution of social-economic, political, demographic and ecological problems was largely dependent on effectively protecting the population and economic assets from natural disasters and on ensuring conditions for their sustainable development. These problems are most acute in mountainous regions like Georgia, where the unplanned development of natural ecosystems has had drastic consequences. It is therefore necessary to understand not only the probability of changing conditions (natural as well as political and demographic), but also the probability of the resulting economic losses. The book is divided into four sections; historical and political geography, geological processes, ecological processes and developmental geography. In the historical and political geography section the authors present a detailed discussion on ancient history, historical and political geography, ethnic groups and religions, demographics and socio-cultural geography. The geological processes section contains information on geology, geodynamical processes, glacial and periglacial processes. The ecological processes section examines a variety of landscapes and ecosystems, aspects of deforestation, reforestation and desertification along with anthropogenic impacts on the environment. The developmental geography section looks at different economies, natural resources, sustainable development and climate change.
This book explores various intelligent algorithms including evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence-based algorithms for analysis and control of dynamical systems. Both single-input-single-output (SISO) and multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) systems are explored for analysis and control purposes. The applications of intelligent algorithm vary from approximation to optimal control design. The applications of intelligent algorithms not only improve understanding of a dynamical system but also enhance the control efficacy. The intelligent algorithms are now readily applied to all fields of control including linear control, nonlinear control, digital control, optimal control, etc. The book also discusses the main benefits attained due to the application of algorithms to analyze and control.
This book covers advances in system, control and computing. This book gathers selected high-quality research papers presented at the International Conference on Advances in Systems, Control and Computing (AISCC 2020), held at MNIT Jaipur during February 27-28, 2020. The first part is advances in systems and it is dedicated to applications of the artificial neural networks, evolutionary computation, swarm intelligence, artificial immune systems, fuzzy system, autonomous and multi-agent systems, machine learning, other intelligent systems and related areas. In the second part, machine learning and other intelligent algorithms for design of control/control analysis are covered. The last part covers advancements, modifications, improvements and applications of intelligent algorithms.
This book collects high-quality research papers presented at the International Conference on Computing Applications in Electrical & Electronics Engineering, held at Rajkiya Engineering College, Sonbhadra, India, on August 30-31, 2019. It provides novel contributions in computational intelligence, together with valuable reference material for future research. The topics covered include: big data analytics, IoT and smart infrastructures, machine learning, artificial intelligence and deep learning, crowd sourcing and social intelligence, natural language processing, business intelligence, high-performance computing, wireless, mobile and green communications, ad-hoc, sensor and mesh networks, SDN and network virtualization, cognitive systems, swarm intelligence, human-computer interaction, network and information security, intelligent control, soft computing, networked control systems, renewable energy sources and technologies, biomedical signal processing, pattern recognition and object tracking, and sensor devices and applications.
This book analyzes the issues associated with climate change in the Himalayas. The purpose of choosing the Himalayas as a focus is because it is a particularly fragile mountain system, highly sensitive to climate change impacts, and it contains one of the largest human populations affected by climate change. The book provides extensive data and information regarding the climate history of the Himalayas, and the current effects of climate change on Himalayan weather systems, and on human and animal populations in the region. The book begins with an overview of global climate change with discussions of data trends and international initiatives, then segues into a history of climate changes and weather trends in the Himalayas. Weather systems of the Himalayas, both past and current, are analyzed and detailed through climate models, seasonal observations of weather fronts, and overviews of various climate scenarios. The book then discusses climate change impacts and signatures specific to the Central Himalayan region, where the largest effects of impacts are observed. Readers will discover analysis presented on water resources, meteorological changes, biodiversity, agriculture and human health along with perspectives of management and policy. This book will appeal to researchers studying climate science, climatology, environmental scientists and policymakers.