Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research.
Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods employed, and offer an objective analysis of how the role of animals as spaceflight test subjects not only evolved, but subsequently changed over the years in response to a public outcry led by animal activists. It will explore the ways in which animal high-altitude and space flight research impacted on space flight biomedicine and technology, and how the results - both successful and disappointing - allowed human beings to then undertake that same hazardous journey with far greater understanding and confidence.
This book is intended as a detailed yet highly readable and balanced account of the history of animal space flights, and the resultant application of hard-won research to space technology and astrobiology. It will undoubtedly become the ultimate authority on animal space flights.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This eagerly awaited book offers a unique, comprehensive scientific study of the anatomy of the organ of female sexual pleasure. The authors use macroscopic and microscopic research to guide the reader from the glans, the visible part of the clitoris, where they explore the impressive sensory corpuscles, to the hidden roots of the bulbo-clitoral organ. They show its complexity, its exact location within the external genitalia and its intimate relationship with the urethro-vaginal pyramid.They also remind us that throughout history there has been a failure to understand this organ and explain that this misunderstanding remains the cause of persistent excisions, criminal mutilating practices that have not yet been eradicated.Using extensive iconography, they demonstrate throughout this book that the bulbo-clitoral organ is an exceptional natural treasure that every woman possesses and that every man should know well.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
Composite structures and products have developed tremendously since the publication of the first edition of this work in 1986. This new edition of the now classic 1986 text has been written to educate the engineering reader in the various aspects of mechanics for using composite materials in the design and analysis of composite structures and products. Areas dealt with include manufacture, micromechanical properties, structural design, joints and bonding and a much needed introduction to composite design philosophy. Each chapter is concluded by numerous problems suitable for home assignments or examination. A solution guide is available on request from the authors.
About this book In the last century developments in mathematics, philosophy, physics, computer science, economics and linguistics have proven important for the development of logic. There has been an influx of new ideas, concerns, and logical systems reflecting a great variety of reasoning tasks in the sciences. This volume reflects the multi-dimensional nature of the interplay between logic and science. It presents contributions from the world's leading scholars under the following headings: - Proof, Knowledge and Computation - Truth Values beyond Bivalence - Category-Theoretic Structures - Independence, Evaluation Games, and Imperfect Information - Dialogue and Pragmatics. The contents exemplify the liveliness of modern perspectives on the philosophy of logic and mathematics and demonstrate the growth of the discipline. It describes new trends, possible developments for research and new issues not normally raised in the standard agenda of the philosophy of logic and mathematics. It transforms rigid classical partitions into a more open field for improvisation. Written for: Logicians, philosophers, specialists of Cognitive Science and Computer Science, mathematicians, linguists Keywords: Foundations of Mathematics Games Logic Philosophy Semantics
Attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, asperger's syndrome, and autism, to name but a few, may be viewed as points on a spectrum of developmental disabilities in which those points share features in common and possibly etiology as well, varying only in severity and in the primary anatomical region of dysfunctional activity.
This text focuses on alterations of the normal development of the child. A working theory is presented based on what we know of the neurological and cognitive development in the context of evolution of the human species and its brain. In outlining our theory of developmental disabilities in evolutionary terms, the authors offer evidence to support the following notions: Bipedalism was the major reason for human neocortical evolution; Cognition evolved secondary and parallel to evolution of motricity; There exists an overlap of cognitive and motor symptoms; Lack of thalamo-cortical stimulation, not overstimulation, is a fundamental problem of developmental disabilities; A primary problem is dysfunctions of hemisphericity; Most conditions in this spectrum of disorders are the result of a right hemisphericity; Environment is a fundamental problem; All of these conditions are variations of the same problem; These problems are correctable; Hemisphere specific treatment is the key to success.
To provide an understanding of financial globalization from a historical point of view, this book sheds light on international banking in Asia before World War II. International banking facilitated the relationship between Asian economic development and international financial centres. Focusing on the origins of a wide variety of banks not just from Europe but beyond Europe, such as the United States and Asia, particularly Japan and China, this book comprehensively explores competition and collaboration among international banks in Asia. It clarifies international banking's role of integrating the global market and the impact on both ends of the global economy-the international financial centres in the developed world and the developing economies in Asia. Economic development in Asia from the late nineteenth century to the 1930s as a part of the globalizing economy mirrors Asia's current role as the global economic-growth powerhouse. This book focuses on the two key similarities between Asia's past and present: intra-Asian relationships and the relationship between Asia and developed economies, namely, Europe, the United States, and Japan. Getting into the heart of the relationships, i.e., finance, this book presents a sophisticated and realistic image of the tangled network of international economic relations, distinguished from the conventional image of a one-sided advantage or disadvantage among involved nations.
This book provides an interdisciplinary lens for exploring, assessing, and coming to new understandings of smart cities and regions, focusing on the six dimensions of sensing, awareness, learning, openness, innovation, and disruption. Using a hybrid case study and correlational approach, people from diverse sectors in a variety of small to medium to large-sized cities in multiple countries (e.g., Canada, United States, Ireland, Greece, Israel, etc.) provide experience-based perspectives on smart cities together with assessments for elements pertaining to each of the six dimensions.
The analysis of findings in this work surfaces a rich and interwoven tapestry of patterns from the qualitative data highlighting for example, the importance of emotion/affect, privacy, trust, and data visualizations in influencing and informing the directions of smart cities and regions going forward. Correlational analysis of quantitative data reveals the presence and strength of emerging relationships among elements assessed, shedding light on factors that may serve as starting points for understanding what is contributing to potentials for improving success in smart cities and regions.
This book presents the proceedings of the 5th IFToMM Symposium on Mechanism Design for Robotics, MEDER 2021, held in Poitiers, France, 23-25 June 2021. It gathers contributions by researchers from several countries on all major areas of robotic research, development and innovation, as well as new applications and current trends. The topics covered include: theoretical and computational kinematics, mechanism design, experimental mechanics, mechanics of robots, control issues of mechanical systems, machine intelligence, innovative mechanisms and applications, linkages and manipulators, micro-mechanisms, dynamics of machinery and multi-body systems. Given its scope, the book offers a source of information and inspiration for researchers seeking to improve their work and gather new ideas for future developments.
This book examines what seems to be the basic challenge in neuroscience today: understanding how experience generated by the human brain is related to the physical world we live in. The 25 short chapters present the argument and evidence that brains address this problem on a wholly trial and error basis. The goal is to encourage neuroscientists, computer scientists, philosophers, and other interested readers to consider this concept of neural function and its implications, not least of which is the conclusion that brains don't "compute."
Pricing of export credit is a challenge in the globalised world trade. Annual premia represent billions of euros or dollars and may determine competition. This book develops a rigorous new framework for pricing export credit products, e.g. buyer and supplier credit insurance and performance and working capital guarantees , based on well-known financial and actuarial theories. It introduces the products, the theories and the different data sources in order to apply the mathematical and financial ideas, e.g. discounting, risk-neutral valuation and Merton type defaults. It shows the differences of historical experience and implicit market pricing assumptions. The well-known OECD Arrangement is used as a benchmark for some part of the framework. Short code snippets in R are given in order to re-perform the results and have a basis to try own ideas. Many unprecedented exhibits give new insights into the subject matter. The book is targeted at practitioners and actuaries in the field with a good quantitative background.
This volume presents the proceedings of the 18th International Probabilistic Workshop (IPW), which was held in Guimarães, Portugal in May 2021. Probabilistic methods are currently of crucial importance for research and developments in the field of engineering, which face challenges presented by new materials and technologies and rapidly changing societal needs and values. Contemporary needs related to, for example, performance-based design, service-life design, life-cycle analysis, product optimization, assessment of existing structures and structural robustness give rise to new developments as well as accurate and practically applicable probabilistic and statistical engineering methods to support these developments. These proceedings are a valuable resource for anyone interested in contemporary developments in the field of probabilistic engineering applications.
This interdisciplinary book provides a cross-sectoral and multi-dimensional exploration and assessment of the urban geography perspectives in Zimbabwe. Drawing on work from different disciplines, the book not only contributes to academia but also seeks to inform urban policy with the view of contributing to the national aspirations of Zimbabwe attaining middle-income status by 2030. Adopting a multi-dimensional assessment that transcends disciplines such as urban and regional planning, human and physical geography, urban governance, political science, economics and development studies, the book provides a background for co-production concerning urban development in the Global South.
The book contributes into its analysis of the institutional and legislative framework that relates to the urban geography of Zimbabwe, as these are responsible for the evolution of the urban system in the country. The connections among different sectors and issues such as environment, economy, politics and the wider objectives of the SDGs, especially goal 11 aspiring to create sustainable communities by 2030, are explored. The success stories relating to urban geography in Zimbabwe are identified together with the best possible practices that may inform urban planning, policy and management.
This book posits that the `refugee crisis' may actually be a crisis of identity in a rapidly changing world. It argues that Western conceptions of the individual `Self' shape metaphors of political homes, and thus the geopolitics of belonging and exclusion. Metzger-Traber creatively re-conceives political belonging by perceiving the interconnection of each `Self' through its most immediate home - the breathing body. On an experimental literary journey through her own past and that of Germany, she puts political philosophy in conversation with somatic and spiritual insight to expand notions of `Self' and 'Home'. Then she asks: What ethical imperatives arise? What kinds of homes and homelands would we create if we no longer thought we ended at our skin?
This book proposes a novel position in the debate on scientific realism: Modal Empiricism. Modal empiricism is the view that the aim of science is to provide theories that correctly delimit, in a unified way, the range of experiences that are naturally possible given our position in the world. The view is associated with a pragmatic account of scientific representation and an original notion of situated modalities, together with an inductive epistemology for modalities. It purports to provide a faithful account of scientific practice and of its impressive achievements, and defuses the main motivations for scientific realism. More generally, Modal Empiricism purports to be the precise articulation of a pragmatist stance towards science.This book is of interest to any philosopher involved in the debate on scientific realism, or interested in how to properly understand the content, aim and achievements of science.
Skin cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm, and with the increasing regularity of such tumors comes the need for a practical guide for medical professionals to reference for diagnosis, management, and treatment. This book covers everything from the epidemiology of the skin cancer, clinical presentation with clinical photographs, diagrams of the most common anatomical locations, to histological descriptions, special stains/tests for diagnosis, and a treatment algorithm in chart form. A Practical Guide to Skin Cancer offers brief and succinct chapters with pertinent references, as well as high quality color photographs, diagrams, tables, and charts. Written for dermatologists, dermatology residents, and oncologists, this book allows for the reader to quickly and easily obtain the information regarding a tumor's clinical presentation, patient evaluation and treatment algorithms, proving essential for every physician who encounters these tumors in their daily practice.
This book reports on research and practice on computational thinking and the effect it is having on education worldwide, both inside and outside of formal schooling. With coding becoming a required skill in an increasing number of national curricula (e.g., the United Kingdom, Israel, Estonia, Finland), the ability to think computationally is quickly becoming a primary 21st century "basic" domain of knowledge. The authors of this book investigate how this skill can be taught and its resultant effects on learning throughout a student's education, from elementary school to adult learning.
The first evidence on the adverse effects of organic pollutants on Arctic ecosystems was provided by international research initiatives more than 30 years ago. Today, the indigenous people of the North are considered to be affected by exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through their traditional marine food sources. The occurrence of pollutants of emerging concern in remote Polar environments is considered an essential criterion for prioritising this (largely neglected) type of contamination in national, international and global regulation schemes.
Initiated during the first international Polar Years (IPY 2007-2009) and continued afterwards, 11 representative initiatives and projects are summarised as chapters in this book, which highlights today's interdisciplinary research on POPs in the Polar environment. The individual chapters describe in detail the consequences, priorities and perspectives of international research on POPs (legacy and emerging xenobiotics), its implications for regulations and scientific priorities including societal and cultural developments in the Arctic, as well as conservation priorities in Antarctica.
This book is intended for all readers interested in learning more about modern research on environmental pollutants in the Polar environments (with a strong focus on Arctic environments). The impacts of pollution and climate change on Polar regions and the world as a whole will continue to be felt for many years to come. Sound science is, thus, vital in order to underpin actions that need to be taken at the global, regional and local levels. This book contributes to this highly relevant, interdisciplinary environmental scientific endeavour.
This book delves into two divergent, yet parallel themes; first is an examination of how educators can design the experiences of learning, with a focus on the learner and the end results of education; and second, how educators learn to design educational products, processes and experiences. The book seeks to understand how to design how learning occurs, both in the instructional design studio and as learning occurs throughout the world. This will change the area's semantics; at a deeper level, it will change its orientation from instructors and information to learners; and it will change how educators take advantage of new and old technologies. This book is the result of a research symposium sponsored by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology [AECT].
This book provides a descriptive, progressive narrative on the flipped classroom including its history, connection to theory, structure, and strategies for implementation. Important questions to consider when evaluating the purpose and effectiveness of flipping are answered. The book also highlights case studies of flipped higher education classrooms within five different subject areas. Each case study is similarly structured to highlight the reasons behind flipping, principles guiding flipped instructions, strategies used, and lessons learned. An appendix that contains lesson plans, course schedules, and descriptions of specific activities is also included.