The electricity systems of many countries are currently undergoing a process of transformation. Market liberalization has induced major mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector, but has also forced companies to seek out new business areas. Environmental regulations, like the Kyoto process and the European Emissions Trading Scheme, are exposing the sector to external pressure. New technologies - such as renewable energy, combined heat and power (CHP), or "clean coal" technologies - are emerging. Recent worldwide experiences with blackouts have once more put security of supply on the agenda. In Germany, the nuclear phase-out and decommissioning of outdated coal plants will lead to a need for replacement of more than one third of the current generation capacity by 2020. The need for replacement is an extremely important driving force for the current transformation, forcing conventional and new technologies to compete for a role in the future energy supply. The overall transformation of electricity systems is neither driven nor shaped by technical or societal modifications alone, but rather by a rich diversity of processes in the realms of technology, politics, society and economy.
Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
This book provides a concise introduction to convex duality in financial mathematics. Convex duality plays an essential role in dealing with financial problems and involves maximizing concave utility functions and minimizing convex risk measures. Recently, convex and generalized convex dualities have shown to be crucial in the process of the dynamic hedging of contingent claims. Common underlying principles and connections between different perspectives are developed; results are illustrated through graphs and explained heuristically. This book can be used as a reference and is aimed toward graduate students, researchers and practitioners in mathematics, finance, economics, and optimization. Topics include: Markowitz portfolio theory, growth portfolio theory, fundamental theorem of asset pricing emphasizing the duality between utility optimization and pricing by martingale measures, risk measures and its dual representation, hedging and super-hedging and its relationship with linear programming duality and the duality relationship in dynamic hedging of contingent claims
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
Ocular infections remain an important cause of ocular morbidity and loss of vision, yet many are preventable or curable. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment help in the control of such infectious disorders and the prevention of blindness. There are many infectious diseases of the eye and adnexa and knowledge of their diagnosis and management is essential to an optimal therapeutic outcome.This book provides the practitioner with the important information required to ensure appropriate diagnosis and management of ocular infectious diseases. Specific clinical signs and symptoms are outlined, and the role of specific diagnostic tests, including molecular biology techniques, is explained. All of the most common microorganisms are considered and current knowledge on the antimicrobial therapy of ocular infections is clearly summarized. Ocular Infections will be a great help to physicians as a guide to the care of patients with ocular infectious diseases.
Analog Circuit Design contains the contribution of 18 tutorials of the 18th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Each part discusses a specific to-date topic on new and valuable design ideas in the area of analog circuit design. Each part is presented by six experts in that field and state of the art information is shared and overviewed. This book is number 18 in this successful series of Analog Circuit Design, providing valuable information and excellent overviews of: Smart Data Converters: Chaired by Prof. Arthur van Roermund, Eindhoven University of Technology, Filters on Chip: Chaired by Herman Casier, AMI Semiconductor Fellow, Multimode Transmitters: Chaired by Prof. M. Steyaert, Catholic University Leuven, Analog Circuit Design is an essential reference source for analog circuit designers and researchers wishing to keep abreast with the latest development in the field. The tutorial coverage also makes it suitable for use in an advanced design.
Forewords by Claes-Göran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden, and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, TexasNanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials. Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
Flexible-electronics is rapidly finding many main-stream applications where low-cost, ruggedness, light weight, unconventional form factors and ease of manufacturability are just some of the important advantages over their conventional rigid-substrate counterparts. Flexible Electronics: Materials and Applications surveys the materials systems and processes that are used to fabricate devices that can be employed in a wide variety of applications, including flexible flat-panel displays, medical image sensors, photovoltaics, and electronic paper. Materials discussed range from polymeric semiconductors to nanotube transparent conductors, highlighting the important characteristics of each system and their target applications. An overview of the performance benchmarks for the different materials is given in order to allow a direct comparison of these different technologies. Furthermore, the devices and processes most suitable for given applications in flexible electronics are identified.
Topics covered include:
An overview and history of flexible electronics
Novel materials for solution-processable thin-film electronic devices and their properties
Low-temperature processing of conventional materials and devices on plastic foils
Novel techniques, such as printing and roll-to-roll processing, for large-area flexible electronics manufacturing
Materials and device physics relevant to flexible electronics
Device integration on flexible substrates
Mechanical and electronic characteristics for thin-film transistors and nano-scale transparent conductors on flexible platforms
Applications towards flexible displays, sensors, actuators, solar energy, radio-frequency identification, and micro-electro-mechanical systems
Written by leading researchers in the field, Flexible Electronics: Materials and Applications serves as a reference for researchers, engineers, and students interested in the characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of these exciting materials and emerging applications.
This book brings together papers presented at the 2017 International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (ICCSP 2017), which was held on July 14-17, 2017 in Harbin, China. Presenting the latest developments and discussing the interactions and links between these multidisciplinary fields, the book spans topics ranging from communications, signal processing and systems. It is aimed at undergraduate and graduate electrical engineering, computer science and mathematics students, researchers and engineers from academia and industry as well as government employees.
Fungi range from being microscopic, single-celled yeasts to multicellular and heterotrophic in nature. Fungal communities have been found in vast ranges of environmental conditions. They can be associated with plants epiphytically, endophytically, or rhizospherically. Extreme environments represent unique ecosystems that harbor novel biodiversity of fungal communities.
Interest in the exploration of fungal diversity has been spurred by the fact that fungi perform numerous functions integral in sustaining the biosphere, ranging from nutrient cycling to environmental detoxification, which involves processes like augmentation, supplementation, and recycling of plant nutrients - a particularly important process in sustainable agriculture. Fungal communities from natural and extreme habitats help promote plant growth, enhance crop yield, and enhance soil fertility via direct or indirect plant growth promoting (PGP) mechanisms of solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc, production of ammonia, hydrogen cyanides, phytohormones, Fe-chelating compounds, extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and bioactive secondary metabolites. These PGP fungi could be used as biofertilizers, bioinoculants, and biocontrol agents in place of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in eco-friendly manners for sustainable agriculture and environments.
Along with agricultural applications, medically important fungi play a significant role for human health. Fungal communities are useful for sustainable environments as they are used for bioremediation which is the use of microorganisms' metabolism to degrade waste contaminants (sewage, domestic, and industrial effluents) into non-toxic or less toxic materials by natural biological processes. Fungi could be used as mycoremediation for the future of environmental sustainability. Fungi and fungal products have the biochemical and ecological capability to degrade environmental organic chemicals and to decrease the risk associated with metals, semi-metals, and noble metals either by chemical modification or by manipulating chemical bioavailability.
The two volumes of Recent Trends in Mycological Research aim to provide an understanding of fungal communities from diverse environmental habitats and their potential applications in agriculture, medical, environments and industry. The books are useful to scientists, researchers, and students involved in microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology and related subjects.
This volume is dedicated to multidisciplinary research at the interface between basic biomedicine and clinical practice.
This book guides best practice in the diagnosis and therapy while dealing with difficult-to-treat disorders of yet unclear etiology. Chapters address such disorders as granulomatosis with polyangiitis causing autoimmune-related multiorgan inflammation of blood vessels, increasingly widespread allergy to peanuts, occupational exposure to zinc oxide, and immunogenic responses to pneumococcal and influenza vaccination underlying their preventive effectiveness. Other hot issues deal with the proper use of fluid therapy in the perioperative period and a cognitive decline in lung transplant patients. A new physiotherapeutic approach of treating key myofascial trigger points in low-back pain appears highly beneficial in reducing patients' disability, advancing physiotherapy of this overwhelming condition. Finally, other chapters consider ways to streamline medical management to increase the number of physicians and their availability for patients, a particularly sensitive issue in the current COVID-19 pandemic. The dissemination of clinical knowledge about high-risk and hardly controllable conditions is an inalienable part of progress in medical practice. The book is a resource for clinical specialists, general practitioners, and allied healthcare professionals.
This is a comprehensive work summarizing the current state of knowledge of the biology of the hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of Southern Africa (South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Lesotho and Maputo Province, Mozambique). It provides an overview of the history of tick research in Southern Africa and the evolution of our knowledge of the ticks' distribution and biology, as well as the methods used to determine tick distribution, abundance and host preference. The morphologies of most of the tick species known to occur in Southern Africa are described and illustrated, and their distributions are described and mapped in relation to the biomes of the region. The known hosts for each tick species are listed, and the tick's host preferences are discussed. Information on most species life cycle in the laboratory and the field, and their seasonal occurrence, is summarized. The diseases of animals and humans transmitted or caused by each tick species are summarized in relation to tick ecology. Aspects of the biology of the major hosts relevant to tick infestations are described, and extensive tick/host and host/tick lists are provided for each country
This atlas is unique in comparing the two disciplines of dental implant surgery and tooth-preserving surgery with respect to common procedures, problems, and failures and in providing excellent guidance on the prevention and management of complications. The etiology of a wide variety of implant-related and non-implant-related complications and failures is carefully explained. Since many complications have their roots in oral and periodontal surgical maneuvers, these maneuvers are themselves discussed and extensively illustrated. The most frequently used tooth preservation procedures are also fully described, with emphasis on correct surgical technique as a means to avoid complications. The use of these procedures is constantly weighed against the effects of tooth removal and insertion of dental implants. The text is complemented by the inclusion of a substantial number of helpful references. While the atlas is intended primarily for dentists involved in outpatient implant dentistry and oral surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgeons will also find the descriptions of innovative techniques or maneuvers to be of interest, including those relating to the selection of incision and flap design and the sinus floor elevation techniques.
This book outlines, from a surgeon's standpoint, how physicians and mid-level providers working at wound care centres can expeditiously and effectively manage wounds. It comprehensively addresses the concept of wound healing, from the healing process to debridement concepts, and various antiseptics and local antibiotics used in dressing materials to facilitate healing. The book also discusses the latest inventions and treatment options that have revolutionized wound healing, such as: oxygen therapy, ozone therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, electric therapy and ultrasonic wound therapy. In closing, it examines the latest regenerative therapies based on stem cell therapy, cellular therapy and gene therapy. Given its scope, the book offers a valuable resource for medical students and physicians dealing with wound management, as well as a reference guide for nurses in primary and tertiary wound care settings.
Dieses Buch vermittelt die Grundlagen der Diagnostik von Gleichgewichtsstrungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der thermischen Videonystagmographie. Es werden zunächst die anatomischen und physiologischen Grundlagen des Vestibularsystems sowie die Anamnese und klinischen Untersuchungen und anschließend die apparativen diagnostischen Mglichkeiten zusammengefasst. Die Darstellung des Vorgehens bei der Diagnostik der einzelnen Krankheitsbilder ist sehr praxisnah gehalten. Das Buch beseitigt viele Unsicherheiten in der Diagnose der zugrundeliegenden Ursachen von Gleichgewichtsstrungen, die es nach wie vor gibt. Für HNO-Ärzte, Hausärzte und Neurologen in Klinik und Praxis.
This proceedings volume focuses on the importance and power of spatial thinking and planning, especially by applying geospatial technologies in solving the past and current global problems such as environmental degradation, urban pollution, climate change, agricultural management and epidemiology.The proceedings of the International Conference on Geography and Geoinformatics for Sustainable Development 2018 (ICGGS 2018) consist of a wide range of case studies from developing countries.
The contributions address challenges of developing countries in mainstreaming sustainable development paradigm into their economy with the aim to improve and manage natural resources and environment in a sustainable manner.
One of the main goals of the conference and the proceedings is to share and exchange different perspectives on global, regional and local spatial issues and how the concept of spatial planning and thinking can be used in building resilience to natural and anthropogenic threats in many sectors (such as water, ecosystem, agriculture and health). This includes a summary of how the key concepts of geospatial technologies could contribute to environmental sustainability and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as well as an outlook on challenges and opportunities for sustainable development. This book explains how geoinformatics can help analyse, model and explain sustainable development within a geographic context and thus provide the integrative framework necessary for global collaboration consensus and evidence-based decision-making. It highlights the vital and integrative role of geospatial information in driving sustainable development and thus can be used as a tool to put the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development into practice.
This volume can be a useful resource for readers regarding research on geospatial issues on both the regional and local scale. Both undergraduate and graduate students around the globe can advance their academic and research knowledge of past and present environmental problems and learn how geospatial planning can be applied for sustainable development. It also appeals to researchers, academics, practitioners, community developers and policy makers interested in promoting sustainable development.
Vertriebsmitarbeiter der Finanzdienstleistungsbranche müssen Kunden schwer greifbare Produkte erklären, sich ständig ändernden Rahmenbedingungen anpassen und einem allgemeinen Vertrauensverlust entgegentreten. In keiner Branche ist die Kluft zwischen erfolgreichen und weniger erfolgreichen Verkäufern so groß wie in dieser. Doch wie von den Erfolgsrezepten der umsatzstarken Kollegen profitieren, die ihre magischen Fähigkeiten gewinnbringend einsetzen aber nur selten preisgeben?Ralf-Peter Prack und André Czerwionka lüften in diesem Buch die Zaubertricks der erfolgreichen Finanz-Vertriebler. Sie erläutern, mit welchem Selbstverständnis Verkaufsmagier ihren Kunden gegenübertreten, mit welchen Zutaten, Hilfsmitteln und Zaubersprüchen sie Kunden im Verkaufsgespräch zu einer bedarfsorientierten Kaufentscheidung führen und erfolgreich Verträge abschließen. Tipps für zielführendes Cross-Selling zeigen den Weg zur Knnerschaft des Meistermagiers zum Topverkäufer.In der 2. Auflage wurden die aktuellen Gesetzesänderungen eingearbeitet und um den GDV-Verhaltenskodex sowie die Weiterbildungsinitiative gut Beraten ergänzt. Daneben wurden neu entwickelte Rezepturen verzaubernde Verkaufsgespräche aufgenommen.
This book describes numerical simulations of collisions between asteroids, based on a unique numerical code developed by the author. The code accurately solves the elastic dynamic equations and describes the effects of fracture and friction, which makes it possible to investigate the shapes of impact outcomes produced by asteroid collisions and subsequent gravitational accumulation of fragments.
The author parallelizes the code with high parallelization efficiency; accordingly, it can be used to conduct high-resolution simulations with the aid of supercomputers and clarify the shapes of small remnants produced through the catastrophic destruction of asteroids. The author demonstrates that flat asteroids can only be produced by impacts involving objects with similar mass and low velocity, which suggests that the flat asteroids in our solar system were created in the planet formation era and have kept their shapes until today. The author also shows that asteroid collisions under certain conditions can produce the extremely elongated shape of an interstellar minor body, 1I/`Oumuamua. In brief, the book offers a comprehensive investigation of asteroid impacts and shapes, making it a uniquely valuable resource.