The electricity systems of many countries are currently undergoing a process of transformation. Market liberalization has induced major mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector, but has also forced companies to seek out new business areas. Environmental regulations, like the Kyoto process and the European Emissions Trading Scheme, are exposing the sector to external pressure. New technologies - such as renewable energy, combined heat and power (CHP), or "clean coal" technologies - are emerging. Recent worldwide experiences with blackouts have once more put security of supply on the agenda. In Germany, the nuclear phase-out and decommissioning of outdated coal plants will lead to a need for replacement of more than one third of the current generation capacity by 2020. The need for replacement is an extremely important driving force for the current transformation, forcing conventional and new technologies to compete for a role in the future energy supply. The overall transformation of electricity systems is neither driven nor shaped by technical or societal modifications alone, but rather by a rich diversity of processes in the realms of technology, politics, society and economy.
Cette étude est consacrée à l'examen de la théorie du monde social qui se découvre dans la phénoménologie d'Edmund Husserl : est-elle à même de dire les phénomènes sociaux, sur quel mode et avec quels résultats ?Dans un premier moment, nous reconstituons le propos des deux « ontologies sociales » qui pensent le monde social en son essence et en ses essences : d'une part, l'ontologie de la région « monde social », subordonnée à la région de l'« esprit » et élaborée à partir d'une phénoménologie de la communication ; d'autre part, l'ontologie morphologique et eidétique des formes essentielles de communautés sociales. Dans un second moment, nous suivons l'élaboration d'une « sociologie transcendantale » qui reconsidère le rapport de la subjectivité transcendantale au monde social. Nous montrons comment les développements de la théorie de la personne dans la perspective de la phénoménologie génétique, qui semblent nous détourner de la considération de sa socialité, précisent en réalité le rapport du sujet personnel au monde social sous l'angle de sa « mienneté », de l'habitualité et de la familiarité d'une part, et dans la perspective d'une éthique sociale d'autre part. On établit enfin comment, autour de la Krisis, la théorie du monde de la vie fournit le cadre théorique d'une « sociologie transcendantale » qui se développe, sur le fond d'une anthropologie du monde commun, comme théorie de la générativité. De l'ontologie sociale à la sociologie transcendantale, cette recherche est conçue comme une investigation des ressources et des difficultés de la voie par l'ontologie d'accès à la réduction transcendantale, relativement à la question du « social ».Remarquable enquête menée sur l'expérience sociale du sujet, la phénoménologie husserlienne du monde social est susceptible d'intéresser le sociologue comme le philosophe qui s'interroge sur la nature du « social » en général.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book provides a concise introduction to convex duality in financial mathematics. Convex duality plays an essential role in dealing with financial problems and involves maximizing concave utility functions and minimizing convex risk measures. Recently, convex and generalized convex dualities have shown to be crucial in the process of the dynamic hedging of contingent claims. Common underlying principles and connections between different perspectives are developed; results are illustrated through graphs and explained heuristically. This book can be used as a reference and is aimed toward graduate students, researchers and practitioners in mathematics, finance, economics, and optimization. Topics include: Markowitz portfolio theory, growth portfolio theory, fundamental theorem of asset pricing emphasizing the duality between utility optimization and pricing by martingale measures, risk measures and its dual representation, hedging and super-hedging and its relationship with linear programming duality and the duality relationship in dynamic hedging of contingent claims
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
Forewords by Claes-Göran Granqvist, Uppsala University, Sweden, and Neal F. Lane, Rice University, TexasNanomaterials inevitably have bright prospects, but even now they play an important role in many areas of industry. Some of these new materials are commercially available and are used in off the shelf products, others are important model systems for physicochemical and materials science research. However, research findings and application data are not compiled in a single work. The Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials collects description and data of materials which have dimensions on the nanoscale. The description of nanomaterials follows the interplay of structure, properties, processing and applications mainly in their solid phase. The chapters were arranged according to the classical materials-science classifications: carbon materials, metals, ceramics, composites, and biomaterials. For each part, materials structures represent different dimensionality; zero-dimensional clusters, nanoparticles and quantum dots, one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, and two-dimensional thin films and surfaces. Combinations cover for instance nanostructured and hybrid materials. Almost 100 leading scientists from academia and the industry were selected to write the 32 chapters and collect the physical, chemical and mechanical data. The handbook was written and compiled for professionals and practitioners, materials scientists, physicists and chemists at universities, as well as in the fields of industrial research and production.The Handbook is organized in seven parts. Part A: NanoCarbons. Part B: NanoMetals. Part C: NanoCeramics. Part D: NanoComposits. Part E: Nanoporous Materials. Part F: Organic and Biomaterilas. Part G: Applications and Impact.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
This eagerly awaited book offers a unique, comprehensive scientific study of the anatomy of the organ of female sexual pleasure. The authors use macroscopic and microscopic research to guide the reader from the glans, the visible part of the clitoris, where they explore the impressive sensory corpuscles, to the hidden roots of the bulbo-clitoral organ. They show its complexity, its exact location within the external genitalia and its intimate relationship with the urethro-vaginal pyramid.They also remind us that throughout history there has been a failure to understand this organ and explain that this misunderstanding remains the cause of persistent excisions, criminal mutilating practices that have not yet been eradicated.Using extensive iconography, they demonstrate throughout this book that the bulbo-clitoral organ is an exceptional natural treasure that every woman possesses and that every man should know well.
The ever increasing emission of carbon dioxide due to rapid industrialization, urbanization, unplanned tourism and alteration of land use pattern is causing unprecedented changes to marine biodiversity. Irrespective of political philosophy, nation, caste, sex and religion, mankind is under the appalling shadow of climate change. Today nature-based approaches for the mitigation of climate change are increasingly accepted as part of the low-cost solution. Thrust has been given by several scientific communities to assess the magnitude and viability of carbon sequestering potential of plants. Coastal producer communities like mangroves, salt marsh grass, seagrass beds, and seaweeds absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide during the process of photosynthesis. This carbon known as the `blue carbon' is thus associated with the marine and estuarine ecosystems. However, a number of gaps in our scientific knowledge on blue carbon domain still exist. Molluscs, coral reefs, phytoplankton, which are amongst the important storehouses of carbon, have not been addressed. Very few scientific studies on the carbon stored in these valuable natural vaults have been performed, and no data bank is available on their carbon sequestering capacity on global basis. The methodologies for assessing blue carbon stock also need further standardization so that credit from blue carbon reservoir is accepted by the International bodies in the form of a concrete policy. It is a matter of great appreciation that Conservation International (CI), the International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources (IUCN), and the Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO is collaborating with governments, research institutions, non-governmental and international organizations, and communities around the world to develop management approaches, financial incentives and policy mechanisms for ensuring conservation and restoration of blue carbon ecosystems and implement projects around the world that demonstrate the feasibility of blue carbon accounting, management, and incentive agreements. The present book has critically presented the data bank for each community of blue carbon not merely in the form of text description, but also through case studies that are the outcomes of research projects and pilot programmes.
Ocular infections remain an important cause of ocular morbidity and loss of vision, yet many are preventable or curable. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment help in the control of such infectious disorders and the prevention of blindness. There are many infectious diseases of the eye and adnexa and knowledge of their diagnosis and management is essential to an optimal therapeutic outcome.This book provides the practitioner with the important information required to ensure appropriate diagnosis and management of ocular infectious diseases. Specific clinical signs and symptoms are outlined, and the role of specific diagnostic tests, including molecular biology techniques, is explained. All of the most common microorganisms are considered and current knowledge on the antimicrobial therapy of ocular infections is clearly summarized. Ocular Infections will be a great help to physicians as a guide to the care of patients with ocular infectious diseases.
The Enhancing Diversity in Graduate Education (EDGE) Program began twenty years ago to provide support for women entering doctoral programs in the mathematical sciences. With a steadfast commitment to diversity among participants, faculty, and staff, EDGE initially alternated between Bryn Mawr and Spelman Colleges. In later years, EDGE has been hosted on campuses around the nation and expanded to offer support for women throughout their graduate school and professional careers. The refereed papers in A Celebration of the EDGE Program's Impact on the Mathematics Community and Beyond range from short memoirs, to pedagogical studies, to current mathematics research. All papers are written by former EDGE participants, mentors, instructors, directors, and others connected to EDGE. Together, these papers offer compelling testimony that EDGE has produced a diverse new generation of leaders in the mathematics community. This volume contains technical and non-technical works, and it is intended for a far-reaching audience, including mathematicians, mathematics teachers, diversity officers, university administrators, government employees writing educational or science policy, and mathematics students at the high school, college, and graduate levels. By highlighting the scope of the work done by those supported by EDGE, the volume offers strong evidence of the American Mathematical Society's recognition that EDGE is "a program that makes a difference."
This volume offers unique testimony that a 20-year old summer program has expanded its reach beyond the summer experience to produce a diverse new generation of women leaders, nearly half of whom are underrepresented women. While some books with a women-in-math theme focus only on one topic such as research or work-life balance, this book's broad scope includes papers on mathematics research, teaching, outreach, and career paths.
Composite structures and products have developed tremendously since the publication of the first edition of this work in 1986. This new edition of the now classic 1986 text has been written to educate the engineering reader in the various aspects of mechanics for using composite materials in the design and analysis of composite structures and products. Areas dealt with include manufacture, micromechanical properties, structural design, joints and bonding and a much needed introduction to composite design philosophy. Each chapter is concluded by numerous problems suitable for home assignments or examination. A solution guide is available on request from the authors.
About this book In the last century developments in mathematics, philosophy, physics, computer science, economics and linguistics have proven important for the development of logic. There has been an influx of new ideas, concerns, and logical systems reflecting a great variety of reasoning tasks in the sciences. This volume reflects the multi-dimensional nature of the interplay between logic and science. It presents contributions from the world's leading scholars under the following headings: - Proof, Knowledge and Computation - Truth Values beyond Bivalence - Category-Theoretic Structures - Independence, Evaluation Games, and Imperfect Information - Dialogue and Pragmatics. The contents exemplify the liveliness of modern perspectives on the philosophy of logic and mathematics and demonstrate the growth of the discipline. It describes new trends, possible developments for research and new issues not normally raised in the standard agenda of the philosophy of logic and mathematics. It transforms rigid classical partitions into a more open field for improvisation. Written for: Logicians, philosophers, specialists of Cognitive Science and Computer Science, mathematicians, linguists Keywords: Foundations of Mathematics Games Logic Philosophy Semantics
Attention deficit disorder, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, asperger's syndrome, and autism, to name but a few, may be viewed as points on a spectrum of developmental disabilities in which those points share features in common and possibly etiology as well, varying only in severity and in the primary anatomical region of dysfunctional activity.
This text focuses on alterations of the normal development of the child. A working theory is presented based on what we know of the neurological and cognitive development in the context of evolution of the human species and its brain. In outlining our theory of developmental disabilities in evolutionary terms, the authors offer evidence to support the following notions: Bipedalism was the major reason for human neocortical evolution; Cognition evolved secondary and parallel to evolution of motricity; There exists an overlap of cognitive and motor symptoms; Lack of thalamo-cortical stimulation, not overstimulation, is a fundamental problem of developmental disabilities; A primary problem is dysfunctions of hemisphericity; Most conditions in this spectrum of disorders are the result of a right hemisphericity; Environment is a fundamental problem; All of these conditions are variations of the same problem; These problems are correctable; Hemisphere specific treatment is the key to success.
This book presents human-centered concepts and solutions for mobility, logistics and infrastructure that will make our growing metropolitan areas more livable and sustainable.The still accelerating megatrend of urbanization is leading to constantly growing metropolitan areas. This creates a whole series of challenges for municipalities, as well as citizens, such as overcrowded traffic routes, limited building space and an increasingly difficult supply situation. With this book we want to answer the following question: How can people live in densely populated areas and meet their needs in terms of mobility, freedom, self-determination, security, prosperity, communication or in other words: how can metropolitan regions be made humane? The answer to this question requires innovative ideas and approaches in various areas:Sustainable designs of infrastructureEconomically and ecologically efficient logistics and mobility approachesIntelligent applications for navigation and communication
All these ideas must be measured against the needs of citizens and should thus be developed following a human-centered design approach. This ensures that innovative solutions will be widely accepted by the public. In addition, they also have the potential to turn citizens into active co-designers of future metropolitan areas.
In the last decade, the clinical management of melanoma has become more effective: basic clinical studies, randomized clinical trials, and new drugs have greatly improved the prognosis of patients, both in the initial and in the advanced stage of the disease.This book offers a wide and up-to-date overview of the multidisciplinary treatment of melanoma. Among the topics discussed, there are the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy and the radical dissection, following the results of international randomized clinical trials, in particular MSLT-II. The last chapters are focused on new medical treatments in adjuvant, neoadjuvant, and metastatic settings. The volume has been written for all the professionals involved in melanoma treatment, such as general surgeons, surgical oncologists, medical oncologists, dermatologists, radiotherapists, and nuclear medicine physicians.
This book provides an indispensable reference guide to the sustainable control and treatment of biomass residues from a wide variety of agroindustrial sources, e.g. sugarcane, livestock, pulp & paper, food wastes, among others.
Pursuing a structured and clear approach, the book opens with a general introduction to biomass, sustainability and environmental chemistry aspects, and on how the use of biomass as a renewable material ties into the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. The book subsequently presents analytical methods applied to different biomass types and their residues and reviews monitoring and treatment strategies in order to avoid pollution of the same. The book closes by describing the value chains, bioeconomy and circular economy for globally relevant agroindustrial biomass.
The book is intended for researchers in academia and industry alike and shows how, in addition to sustainability criteria and life cycle assessments, integrating environmental chemistry aspects can contribute to a holistic approach, and unlock the economic potential of biomass in the age of circular economy and sustainable development.
This open access volume reveals the hidden power of the script we read in and how it shapes and drives our minds, ways of thinking, and cultures. Expanding on the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (i.e., the idea that language affects the way we think), this volume proposes the "Script Relativity Hypothesis" (i.e., the idea that the script in which we read affects the way we think) by offering a unique perspective on the effect of script (alphabets, morphosyllabaries, or multi-scripts) on our attention, perception, and problem-solving. Once we become literate, fundamental changes occur in our brain circuitry to accommodate the new demand for resources. The powerful effects of literacy have been demonstrated by research on literate versus illiterate individuals, as well as cross-scriptal transfer, indicating that literate brain networks function differently, depending on the script being read. This book identifies the locus of differences between the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans, and between the East and the West, as the neural underpinnings of literacy. To support the "Script Relativity Hypothesis", it reviews a vast corpus of empirical studies, including anthropological accounts of human civilization, social psychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, applied linguistics, second language studies, and cross-cultural communication. It also discusses the impact of reading from screens in the digital age, as well as the impact of bi-script or multi-script use, which is a growing trend around the globe. As a result, our minds, ways of thinking, and cultures are now growing closer together, not farther apart.
This book outlines the approach to comprehensive men's health deployed at three of the most successful American men's health centers. It demonstrates the ways in which multidisciplinary care allows patients to easily access their doctors via coordination of care, same day add-on visits, and streamlining of office logistics such as sharing of charts, reports, and results. Guiding readers in establishing an evidence-based, multidisciplinary approach to the management of male patients of all ages, this volume shows how prevention, rapid intervention, cost efficiency, and coordinated care are at the forefront of a health center's care strategy. The authors of this volume are thought leaders in the disciplines of cardiology, gastroenterology, dermatology, psychiatry, and preventative medicine.
Design and Implementation of the Modern Men's Health Center: A Multidisciplinary Approach enables urologists, medical subspecialists, and surgical subspecialists to both manage basic patient issues and also to understand how multidisciplinary care enables the success of a men's health center.
This book highlights peer reviewed articles from the 1st International Conference on Renewable Energy and Energy Conversion, ICREEC 2019, held at Oran in Algeria. It presents recent advances, brings together researchers and professionals in the area and presents a platform to exchange ideas and establish opportunities for a sustainable future. Topics covered in this proceedings, but not limited to, are photovoltaic systems, bioenergy, laser and plasma technology, fluid and flow for energy, software for energy and impact of energy on the environment.