Offers data, examples, and applications supporting the use of the mechanical threshold stress (MTS) model Written by Paul S. Follansbee, an international authority in the field, this book explores the underlying theory, mechanistic basis, and implementation of the mechanical threshold stress (MTS) model. Readers are introduced to such key topics as mechanical testing, crystal structure, thermodynamics, dislocation motion, dislocation-obstacle interactions, hardening through dislocation accumulation, and deformation kinetics. The models described in this book support the emerging theme of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) by offering a foundation for the bridge between length scales characterizing the mesoscale (mechanistic) and the macroscopic. Fundamentals of Strength begins with a chapter that introduces various approaches to measuring the strength of metals. Next, it covers: Structure and bonding Contributions to strength Dislocation-obstacle interactions Constitutive law for metal deformation Further MTS model developments Data analysis: deriving MTS model parameters The next group of chapters examines the application of the MTS model to copper and nickel, BCC metals and alloys, HCP metals and alloys, austenitic stainless steels, and heavily deformed metals. The final chapter offers suggestions for the continued development and application of the MTS model. To help readers fully understand the application of the MTS model, the author presents two fictional materials along with extensive data sets. In addition, end-of-chapter exercises give readers the opportunity to apply the models themselves using a variety of data sets. Appropriate for both students and materials researchers, Fundamentals of Strength goes beyond theory, offering readers a model that is fully supported with examples and applications.
Direct-chill casting is the major production route for wrought aluminium and magnesium alloys that are later deformed (rolled, extruded, forged) to the final products. To aid in this process, this book provides comprehensive coverage on topics such as the history of process development in this field, industrial applications, including vertical and horizontal casting, melt preparation, fundamentals of solidification in DC casting, and more. The first book targeted for the industrial researcher and practitioner, it pulls together the practice and process of physics with the goal of improving process performance.
This book features a collection of papers on the issues, intricacies, and challenges relating to energy and environmental science. It offers expert coverage of the various technological aspects of sustainable energy ecosystems, including processes that improve energy efficiency and reduce CO2 and other greenhouse emissions. It also addresses the need for sustainable technologies in extractive metallurgy, materials processing, and manufacturing industries with energy efficient technologies. Some additional contributions examine renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and biomass.
This state-of-the-art reference presents papers from one of the largest annual gatherings of extraction specialists from around world, the 2013 Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Addressing many aspects of extraction and processing metallurgy, this volume covers in three sections modeling of multi-scale phenomena in materials processing; production, refining, and recycling of rare earth metals; and solar cell silicon. Essential reading for scientists, engineers, and metallurgists in the global extractive and process metallurgy industries.
This collection of proceedings from one of the most popular TMS symposia explores the current progress in the characterization of materials. Addressing technologies, applications, and innovative research, these papers cover definations of ferrous and nonferrous metals and alloys, minerals, advanced and soft materials, and inorganic materials. Extraction and environmental applications, as well as surface, joint, and processing of metals. This is a valuable reference for scientists and engineers working with materials in the minerals, metals, and materials industry.
In the last decade, global metallurgical industries have experienced fast and prosperous growth. High temperature metallurgical technology is the backbone to support the technical, environmental, and economical needs for the growth.
This symposium provides a stage to introduce the advancements and developments of new high temperature metallurgical technologies and their applications to the areas of processing of minerals, extraction of metals, preparation of refractory and ceramic materials, sintering and synthesis of fine particles, treatment and recycling of slag and wastes, and saving of energy and protection of environment.
Proceedings symposia sponsored by the Extraction & Processing Division (EPD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS)
Held during the TMS 2012 Annual Meeting & Exhibition Orlando, Florida, USA, March 11-15,2012
Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Pyrometallurgy Committee and the Energy Committee of the Extraction and Processing Division of TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society) Held during the TMS 2012 Annual Meeting & Exhibition Orlando, Florida, USA
March 11-15, 2012
Proceedings of symposia sponsored by the Energy Committee of the Extraction and Processing Division and the Light Metals Division of TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society)
Held during the TMS 2012 Annual Meeting & Exhibition Orlando, Florida, USA, March 11-15,2012
Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by The Metallurgy and Materials Society of CIM and the Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee of the Extraction and Processing Division of TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society)
Held during the TMS 2012 Annual Meeting & Exhibition Orlando, Florida, USA, March 11-15, 2012
This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials.
The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:
o Characterization of Ferrous Metals
o Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials
o Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics
o Characterization Technologies
o Characterization of Environmental and Construction Materials
o Characterization of Energy, Electronic and Optical Materials
o Characterization of Carbon and Soft Materials
o Characterization of Light Metals
An excellent reference for global extractive and process metallurgy industries, materials scientists and engineers, metallurgists, and mechanical engineers.
As the first book to compile the fundamentals, applications, reference information and analytical tools on the topic, Hydrometallurgy presents a condensed collection of information that can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness with which metals are extracted, recovered, manufactured, and utilized in aqueous media in technically viable and reliable, environmentally responsible, and economically feasible ways. Suitable for students and researchers, this college-level overview addresses Fundamentals of Chemical Metallurgy in Aqueous Media, Speciation and Phase Diagrams, Rate Processes in Aqueous Metal Processing, Aqueous Metal Extraction and Leaching, Fundamentals of Metal Concentration Processes and more.
Preface ix About the Editors xi Electroslag Remelting Computational Modeling of Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Process Used for the Production of High-Performance Alloys 3
K. Kelkar, S. Patankar, S. Srivatsa, R. Minisandram, D. Evans, J. deBarbadillo, R. Smith, R. Helmink, A. Mitchell, and H. Sizek A Numerical Study on the Influence of the Frequency of the Applied AC Current on the Electroslag Remelting Process 13
E. Sibaki, A. Kharicha, M. Wu, A. Ludwig, H. Holzgruber, B. Ofner, and M. Ramprecht A Thermodynamic Database for the Al203-CaF2-CaO System 21
L. Kjellqvist, P. Mason, Q. Chen, and K. Wu Influence of the Polarity on the Cleanliness Level and the Inclusion Types in the ESR Process 29
A. Paar, R. Schneider, P. Zeller, G. Reiter, S. Paul, I. Siller, and P. Wurzinger Hot Test and Simulation of ESR Hollow Ingots Formation in Current Supplying Mould with Electrodes Change 37
X. Chen, Z. Jiang, L. Medovar, F. Liu, G. Stovpchenko, B. Fedorovskii, L. Vitalii, X. Zang, and X. Deng Design of ESR Slags According to Requested Physical Properties; Part 2: Density and Viscosity 43
K. Wroblewski, B. DiBiaso, J. Fraley, J. Fields, and S. Rudoler Predicting Melting Behavior of an Industrial Electroslag Remelting Ingot 47
J. Yanke, K. Fezi, M. Fahrmann, and M. Krane Operational Experience of Large Sized ESR Plants and Attainable Quality of ESR Ingots with a Diameter of Up to 2600mm 57
M. Kubin, A. Scheriau, M. Knabl, H. Holzgruber, and H. Kawakami Experimental Research on the Absorption of Fluorine in Gamma-TiAl during Electroslag Remelting 65
P. Spiess and B. Friedrich A Parametric Study of Slag Skin Formation in Electroslag Remelting 71
J. Yanke and M. Krane Impact of the Solidified Slag Skin on the Current Distribution during Electroslag Remelting 79
M. Hugo, B. Dussoubs, A. Jardy, J. Escaffre, and H. Poisson Investigation of Slag Compositions and Pressure Ranges Suitable for Electroslag Remelting under Vacuum Conditions 87
S. Radwitz, H. Scholz, and B. Friedrich Contribution of the Mould Current to the Ingot Surface Quality in the Electroslag Remelting Process 95
A. Kharicha, E. Sibaki, M. Wu, and A. Ludwig Mechanisms of Calcium Oxide Dissolution in CaO-Al203-Si02-Based Slags 101
M. Guo, Z. Sun, X. Guo, and B. Blanpain Effect of Fluoride Containing Slag on Oxide Inclusions in Electroslag Ingot 109
Y. Dong, Z. Jiang, Y. Cao, J. Fan, A. Yu, and F. Liu Production of High Quality Die Steels from Large ESR Slab Ingots 115
X. Geng, Z. Jiang, H. Li, F. Liu, and X. Li A Study of Slag and Steel Leakage Influence Factors during Electroslag Remelting Withdrawing Process 119
X. Zang, Z. Jiang, H. Song, F, Liu, X. Deng, X. Chen, and C. Han Factors Affecting Surface Quality of Ingot Produced by Electroslag Continuous Casting with Liquid Metal 123
X. Deng, Z. Jiang, and X. Zang Mathematical Model of Solidification during Electroslag Casting of Pilger Roll 127
F. Liu, H. Li, Z. Jiang, Y. Dong, X. Chen, X. Geng, and X. Zang Introducing Carbon Nanoparticles in Titanium during Chamber Electroslag Remelting (CHESR) 133
A. Ryabtsev, B. Friedrich, F. Leokha, S. Ratiev, O. Snizhko, P. Spiess, and S. Radwitz Evolution of ESR Technology and Equipment for Long Hollow Ingots Manufacture 137
L. Medovar, G. Stovpchenko, G. Dudka, A. Kozminskiy, B. Fedorovskii, V. Lebid, and I. Gusiev Variation of the Resistance during the Electrode Movement in the Electroslag Remelting Process 145
A. Kharicha, M. Wu, and A. Ludwig Modeling Macrosegregation during Electroslag Remelting of Alloy 625 151
K. Fezi, J. Yanke, and M. Krane Comparison of Arc Slag Remelting vs. P-ESR Melting for High Nitrogen Steels 159
R. Ritzenhoff, L. Medovar, V. Petrenko, and G. Stovpchenko Defects Numerical Simulation of Macrosegregation in 570-Ton Low-Alloyed Steel Ingot 165
T. Sawada and K. Kajikawa Using a Three-Phase Mixed Columnar-Equiaxed Solidification Model to Study Macrosegregation in Ingot Castings: Perspectives and Limitations 171
M. Wu, J. Li, A. Kharicha, and A. Ludwig Effect of Solidification Front Angle on Freckle Formation in Alloy 625 181
K. Kajikawa, M. Tanaka, T. Sawada, and S. Suzuki The Behaviour of Entrainment Defects in Aluminium Alloy Castings 187
W. Griffiths, A. Caden, and M. El-Sayed Inclusion Behavior in Steel and Aluminum Making Reactors 193
J. Bellot, O. Mirgaux, and A. Jardy Modeling the Titanium Nitride (TiN) Germination and Growth during the Solidification of a Maraging Steel 201
V. Descotes, J. Bellot, S. Witzke, and A. Jardy Thermodynamics for the Influence of Slag Composition on the Inclusion Control in Semi-Killed Liquid Steels 207
J. Park and J. Park The Influence of Different Melting and Remelting Routes on the Cleanliness of High Alloyed Steels 213
G. Reiter, W. Schuetzenhoefer, A. Tazreiter, C. Martinez, P. Wuerzinger, and C. Loecker Refinement of Primary and Eutectic Silicon Particles in Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys Using an Applied Electric Potential 219
A. Plotkowski and P. Anyalebechi Characterization of Bifilms and Oxide Inclusions in Investment Cast IN 100 229
M. Kaplan and G. Fuchs Vacuum Arc Remelting Application of a Model for Simulating the Vacuum Arc Remelting Process in Titanium Alloys 241
A. Pat el, D. Tripp, andD. Fiore Controlling Liquid Pool Depth in VAR of a 21.6cm Diameter Ingot of Alloy 718 245
F. Lopez, J. Beaman, R. Williamson, E. Taleff, and T. Watt Simulation of Radiation Heat Transfer in a VAR Furnace Using an Electrical Resistance Network 253
A. Ballantyne Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot 261
T. Watt, E. Taleff, F. Lopez, J. Beaman, andR. Williamson Aluminum Processing Improvement of Mechanical Properties of HPDC A356 Alloy through Melt Quenching Process 273
S. Ji, W. Yang, B. Jiang, andZ. Fan Review of Hot Tearing Studies in Al Alloys during Direct Chill Casting 277
A. Nallathambi, P. Penumakala, andE. Specht Effect of Sonotrode Design on Simultaneous Grain Refinement and Degassing of Al Alloys by Ultrasound 283
J. Youn, Y. Lee, K. Jung, B. Choi, and Y. Kim Miscellaneous Liquid Metal Engineering by Application of Intensive Melt Shearing 291
J. Patel, Y. Zuo, and Z. Fan
A look at engineering education today- with an eye to tomorrow Engineering education is in flux. While it is increasingly important that engineers be innovative, entrepreneurial, collaborative, and able to work globally, there are virtually no programs that prepare students to meet these new challenges. Shaping Our World: Engineering Education for the 21st Century seeks to fill this void, exploring revolutionary approaches to the current engineering curriculum that will bring it fully up to date and prepare the next generation of would-be engineers for real and lasting professional success. Comprised of fourteen chapters written by respected experts on engineering education, the book is divided into three parts that address the need for change in the way engineering is taught; specific innovations that have been tested, why they matter, and how they can be more broadly instituted; and the implications for further changes. Designed to aid engineering departments in their transition towards new modes of learning and leadership in engineering education, the book describes how to put into practice educational programs that are aligned with upcoming changes, such as those proposed in the NAE's Engineer of 2020 reports. Addressing the need to change engineering education to meet the demands of the 21st century head on, Shaping Our World condenses current discussions, research, and trials regarding new methods into specific, actionable calls for change.
Currently, recycling of e-waste can be broadly divided into three major steps: (a) disassembly: selectively disassembly, targeting on singling out hazardous or valuable components for special treatment, is an indispensable process in recycling of e-waste; (b) upgrading: using mechanical processing and/or metallurgical processing to up-grade desirable materials content, i.e. preparing materials for refining process, such as grinding the plastics into powders; (c) refining: in the last step, recovered materials are retreated or purified by using metallurgical processing so as to be acceptable for their original using. Four topical areas are planned including one special session on the recycling of batteries. Papers in the following topics will be welcomed: Mechanical recycling of E-Wastes Recycling of plastics from E-Wastes Recovery of metals from E-wastes Hydrometallurgical recycling (leaching) of E-Wastes Combustion or pyrolysis of E-Wastes Life cycle and economic analysis for the recycling of E-Wastes
Preface v Co-Sponsors and Steering Committee vii MANAGEMENT Prospects for the World Aluminium Markets (abstract only) 3
Tom Waring Aluminium Casthouse Technology Overview 5
Peter R. Whiteley Revised Hot Metal Logistics at Bayside Aluminium 13
M.J. Hughes QUALITY New Product Developments for Aluminium Cast Houses 23
Leonards. Aubrey, DawidD. Smith and Luiz C.B. Martins Measurements of the Performance of In-Line Processes Using LiMCA 45
T.N. Ware, M. Cooksey and M.J. Couper FURNACES The Evolution of Furnace Operations in Alcan Smelter Castshops 57
Clark Weaver The Real Cost of Alloying in the Cast House 65
Jim Pearson and Paul Cooper Recent Developments in Aluminum Scrap Melting-Update 77
Richard S. Henderson, David V. Neffand Chris T. Vild Influence of Electromagnetic Stirring on the Melting of Aluminium 87
Olof Sjoden Salt Fluxes for Alkali and Alkaline Earth Element Removal from Molten Aluminum 99
David H. DeYoung Comparison of Rotary Salt & Non Salt Dross Processing Technologies 115
Garbis Simonian MELT TREATMENT A Comprehensive Study of Ceramic Foam Filtration 125
Nicholas G. Towsey, Wolfgang Schneider and Hans-Peter Krug Which Method to Choose for Alkaline Reduction? Either in the Pot Room Crucible or in the Cast House 139
Martin B. Taylor Recent Developments in the Prediction of Grain Refiner Performance 151
D.H. St. John and M.A. Easton Launder Design and the Use of Tempcal Modelling (abstract only) 161
J.O. Marthinusen andS. Ray Boron Nitride Release Coatings 163
Stephan Rudolph DC CASTING Two Years Experience with Wagstaff LHC Varimould™ Technology at Bayside Aluminium 173
N.G. Hall Netcast Shape Casting Technology: A Technological Breakthrough That Enhances the Cost Effectiveness of Aluminium Forgings 185
Mark Anderson, Richard Bruski, Daniel Groszkiewicz and Bob Wagstaff The Role of Surface Tension Forces in Gas Pressurized VDC Casting 195
P. W. Baker and J.F. Grandfield A Total Business Cost Approach 205
Brett T. Aisen and Lachlan J. Massey Optimising Pit Recoveries on 6XXX Extrusion Billet 213
David Latter CAST HOUSE SAFETY Casthouse Safety in 2001 223
John E. Jacoby Improving Safety Performance in an Aluminium Casthouse 233
Barry Taylor CONTINUOUS CASTING An Assessment of the Design of a Gautschi Mould Using Finite Element Analysis 247
Philip Clausen and Geoff Whan Horizontal Direct Chilled (HDC) Casting Technology for Aluminium and Requirements to Metal Cleanliness 253
Franz Niedermair Aspects of Heat Transfer During Production of Remelt Ingot Using Chain Casters 263
J.F. Grandfield, T.T. Nguyen, G. Redden and J.A. Taylor Twin-Belt Casting Technology Update (abstract only) 273
W. Szczypiorski Improving Horizontal Direct Chill Casting 275
Ali A. Dawood HEAT TREATMENT Effect of Homogenisation Temperature and Time on Billet Microstructure and Extruded Properties of Alloy 6061 287
M.J. Couper, M. Cooksey and B. Rinderer Effect of Homogenization on Small Diameter Billets - An Extruder's Experience 297
Hua-Tian Tan and Callistus Hing-Chih Lee Control of Wire Rod Physical Properties Like Ultimate Tensile Strength and Elongation by Close Monitoring of Rolling Energy Input 305
S.D. Chouharia, P.S. Gambhir and M. Dash MAGNESIUM CASTING Aluminium and Magnesium: Equipment and Process Comparison 319
Paul McGlade and Nigel Ricketts RECYCLING Recycling of Contaminated Aluminium Scrap - A Responsible Approach 331
Richard J. Evans REFRACTORY Cast House Refractories - Selection & Evaluation 343
Robert C. Flann PROCESS CONTROL Advances in On-Site Alloy Analysis and Identification (abstract only) 357
Keith Watson Automation Primer for Supervisors and Operators 359
Peter R. Whiteley Author Index 371
These proceedings examine the most recent advances and best practices in structural materials selection, design, and manufacturing for producing affordable components, with a focus on titanium, aluminum, and other advanced metallic materials. This volume discusses melting, casting, powder metallurgy, forging, forming, extrusion, and machining, as well as processing advances, innovative processing techniques, process modeling and materials by design, and new alloys, as well as related processing-microstructure-properties-performance-cost studies. This book can be purchased either on CD-ROM, or portable document format (PDF). PDF and CD-ROM books can be viewed using the free Adobe Acrobat Reader Program on Windows, Macintosh, Unix, and other systems. Access Acrobat Reader through the TMS Document Center at http://doc.tms.org. PDF and CD-ROM books are completely text-searchable, allowing users to locate important information quickly by typing in key words. A collection of papers from the 2002 TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition held in Seattle, Washington, February 17-21, 2002.
Sponsored by The Extraction and Processing Division (EPD) of TMS, The Mineral and Metallurgical Processing Division (MPD) of SME, Metallurgical Society (MetSoc) of CIM 2003 TMS/EPD Fall Meeting held in conjunction with 33rd Annual Hydrometallurgy Meeting and 2003 Conference of Metallurgists Vancouver BC Canada August 24-27,2003.
This collection presents the papers presented in the symposium on extraction of rare metals as well as rare extraction processing techniques used in metal production. Paper topics include the extraction and processing of elements like antimony, arsenic, calcium, chromium, hafnium, gold, indium, lithium, molybdenum, niobium, rare earth metals, rhenium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium. Rare processing techniques presented include bio leaching, molecular recognition technology, recovery of valuable components of commodity metals such as magnesium from laterite process wastes, titanium from ilmenites, and rare metals from wastes such as phosphors and LCD monitors.
In a career spanning almost six decades, Prof. John T. Berry has made significant contributions towards building our understanding of solidification and process-structure-property relationships in shaped castings. Celebrating his contributions, the Fourth International Shape Casting Symposium, which takes place at the 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, has been organized in his honor. Shape Casting 2011 contains the proceedings of the symposium in which scientists and engineers from around the world presented their own research findings, discussed challenges in the field, and projected future directions. Papers explore such topics as liquid metal quality; filling and feeding systems; process modeling for shaped castings; structure-property relationships; performance of shaped castings; and machinability of castings.
Friction stir welding has seen significant growth in both technology implementation and scientific exploration. This book covers all aspects of friction stir welding and processing, from fundamentals to design and applications. It also includes an update on the current research issues in the field of friction stir welding and a guide for further research.
This book will include papers on recent research carried out in the field of metal-matrix composites (MMCs). Processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties of MMCs and unreinforced matrix alloys will be covered with a focus on aluminum, titanium, nickel, and copper MMCs. Those involved in the research of MMCs and unreinforced alloys, particularly in aerospace, space, and automotive materials research, will find this volume indispensible. From Materials Science & Technology 2003 to be held in Chicago, Illinois, November 9-12, 2003.
This biography highlights the achievements of America's first professional degreed female scientist, Ellen Swallow Richards (1842--1911). The book takes the reader from Richards's childhood on a Massachusetts farm where she was schooled at home, to her internationally renowned successes in multiple branches of science. o Schools, colleges, and libraries are searching for more books about remarkable, successful women. Richards paved the way for women to enter numerous fields of science previously believed to be the domain of men.
o Currently there is much emphasis on nutrition; Richards pioneered in this field, teaching the American public about fats, carbohydrates, proteins and calories at a time when scarcely anyone knew of their importance.
o Ellen Swallow Richards pioneered multiple fields of science and technology, opening doors for women to become chemists, biologists, geologists, ecologists, nutritionists, dietitians, science teachers, professors, and home economists.
o Richards began the ecology movement, particularly relevant in today's world as more and more attention is being paid to the health of our planet.