Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research.
Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods employed, and offer an objective analysis of how the role of animals as spaceflight test subjects not only evolved, but subsequently changed over the years in response to a public outcry led by animal activists. It will explore the ways in which animal high-altitude and space flight research impacted on space flight biomedicine and technology, and how the results - both successful and disappointing - allowed human beings to then undertake that same hazardous journey with far greater understanding and confidence.
This book is intended as a detailed yet highly readable and balanced account of the history of animal space flights, and the resultant application of hard-won research to space technology and astrobiology. It will undoubtedly become the ultimate authority on animal space flights.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book expands on the classical statistical multivariate analysis theory by focusing on bilinear regression models, a class of models comprising the classical growth curve model and its extensions. In order to analyze the bilinear regression models in an interpretable way, concepts from linear models are extended and applied to tensor spaces. Further, the book considers decompositions of tensor products into natural subspaces, and addresses maximum likelihood estimation, residual analysis, influential observation analysis and testing hypotheses, where properties of estimators such as moments, asymptotic distributions or approximations of distributions are also studied. Throughout the text, examples and several analyzed data sets illustrate the different approaches, and fresh insights into classical multivariate analysis are provided. This monograph is of interest to researchers and Ph.D. students in mathematical statistics, signal processing and other fields where statistical multivariate analysis is utilized. It can also be used as a text for second graduate-level courses on multivariate analysis.
This eagerly awaited book offers a unique, comprehensive scientific study of the anatomy of the organ of female sexual pleasure. The authors use macroscopic and microscopic research to guide the reader from the glans, the visible part of the clitoris, where they explore the impressive sensory corpuscles, to the hidden roots of the bulbo-clitoral organ. They show its complexity, its exact location within the external genitalia and its intimate relationship with the urethro-vaginal pyramid.They also remind us that throughout history there has been a failure to understand this organ and explain that this misunderstanding remains the cause of persistent excisions, criminal mutilating practices that have not yet been eradicated.Using extensive iconography, they demonstrate throughout this book that the bulbo-clitoral organ is an exceptional natural treasure that every woman possesses and that every man should know well.
This timely book allows clinicians of the nervous system, who are increasingly confronted with degenerative and psychiatric diseases, to familiarize themselves with the cerebral amygdala and the anatomical structures involved in these pathologies. Its striking photos of cerebral sections and dissections should help MRI specialists to more precisely study the detailed images provided by their constantly evolving equipment.
Bimetallic nanoparticles, also called nanoalloys, are at the heart of nanoscience because of their ability to tune together composition and size for specific purposes. By approaching both their physical and chemical properties, Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties provides a comprehensive reference to this research field in nanoscience by addressing the subject from both experimental and theoretical points of view, providing chapters across three main topics:
Growth and structural properties
Thermodynamics and electronic structure of nanoalloys
Magnetic, optic and catalytic propertiesThe growth and elaboration processes which are the necessary and crucial part of any experimental approach are detailed in the first chapter. Three chapters are focused on the widely used characterization techniques sensitive to both the structural arrangements and chemistry of nanoalloys. The electronic structure of nanoalloys is described as a guide of useful concepts and theoretical tools. Chapters covering thermodynamics begin with bulk alloys, going to nanoalloys via surfaces in order to describe chemical order/disorder, segregation and phase transitions in reduced dimension. Finally, the optical, magnetic and catalytic properties are discussed by focusing on nanoparticles formed with one element to track the modifications which occur when forming nanoalloys. The range and detail of Nanoalloys: Synthesis, Structure & Properties makes it an ideal resource for postgraduates and researchers working in the field of nanoscience looking to expand and support their knowledge of nanoalloys.
Bio-materials and prototyping (both virtual and physical) is becoming more and more prevalent in medicine. These materials and technologies are used to design, develop and manufacture medical devices and instrumentation, and to fabricate drug dosage forms. This process is also increasingly being used by surgeons to plan complex operations, especially in the craniofacial and maxillofacial areas. Further, prototyping shows promise in the area of tissue engineering through the use of biomaterials including the direct manufacture of biologically active implants. This book focuses on bio materials and prototyping applications in medical environments. The applications that are discussed integrate bio-materials, CAD, and physical prototyping techniques.
Summarizes state-of-the-art research in prototyping of bio-materials for medical applications
Provides a wide variety of examples of medical applications using rapid prototyping, including tissue engineering, dental applications, and bone replacement
Addresses the issues involved with using solid freeform fabrication/rapid prototyping/layered manufacturing that is becoming very important in the biomaterials area
Discusses the emergence of computer aided design in the development of prosthetic devices
Reflecting the diverse and profound changes triggered by the latest wave of economic globalization, this book highlights various governance responses at national, regional and global levels. The topics covered are wide-ranging and include economic history and development, European integration, exchange rate arrangements, industrial and labor economics, international cooperation and multilateralism, and public choice.The book is divided into three parts: The first part, which contains contributions by Barry Eichengreen and Marc Flandreau, is devoted to economic history. The second part examines open economy macroeconomics with a focus on Europe, including contributions by Jurgen von Hagen and Paul Krugman. The third part presents contributions to international political economy, and related interdisciplinary topics. This Festschrift is written in honor of Jorge Braga de Macedo, Professor Emeritus of Economics at the Nova School of Business and Economics and a distinguished Portuguese academic whose work has an impressive global reach. The contributions, written by a selection of international authors, deal with his oeuvre covering the wide range of topics broached in this book, as his publication record amply attests.
This book provides comprehensive coverage of various Cryptography topics, while highlighting the most recent trends such as quantum, blockchain, lightweight, Chaotic and DNA cryptography. Moreover, this book covers cryptography primitives and its usage and applications and focuses on the fundamental principles of modern cryptography such as Stream Ciphers, block ciphers, public key algorithms and digital signatures. Readers will gain a solid foundation in cryptography and security. This book presents the fundamental mathematical concepts of cryptography. Moreover, this book presents hiding data techniques such as steganography and watermarking. The author also provides a comparative study of the different cryptographic methods, which can be used to solve security problems.
This book contributes to the understanding of environment-economy relations from the perspective of economic geography, grounded in the institutional context of China. It demonstrates how classical economic geographies, new economic geographies, and geographies of economic globalization work together to affect the environment. It covers a series of classical topics like industrial location and industrial dynamics and some emerging fields like industrial evolution and global-local interaction and links them to environmental performance in China. The findings in this book echo the call for developing a more comprehensive and systematic research agenda of environmental economic geography. This book offers researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduate students in related fields both theoretical and practical considerations of environmental economic geography. It also offers insights into the policy-making relevant to China's greening efforts.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
The book summarizes the 60 year development of economic theories, explaining in detail the features and development of economic theories from 1949 to 1976 and in the reform and opening-up period. The author has made a systematic theoretical analysis on the economic situation from two different stages - before and after China's reform and opening-up, which put forward many unconventional point of view, and it has contributed visionary ideas for the research on China's economy. It provide the readers with a general understanding of the economic trend and development of contemporary China, with many pertinent answer to the practical and concrete problems about China's economy.
This book presents the state-of-the-art approach for transmission line protection schemes for smart power grid. It provides a comprehensive solution for real-time development of numerical relaying schemes for future power grids which can minimize cascade tripping and widespread blackout problems prevailing all around the world. The book also includes the traditional approach for transmission line protection along with issues and challenges in protection philosophy. It highlights the issues for sheltering power grid from unwanted hazards with very fundamental approach. The book follows a step-by-step approach for resolving critical issues like high impedance faults, power swing detection and auto-reclosing schemes with adaptive protection process. The book also covers the topic of hardware solution for real-time implementation of auto-reclosing scheme for transmission line protection schemes along with comparative analysis with the recently developed analytical approach such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and other machine learning algorithms. It will be useful to researchers and industry professionals and students in the fields of power system protection.
This book explores computational fluid dynamics in the context of the human nose, allowing readers to gain a better understanding of its anatomy and physiology and integrates recent advances in clinical rhinology, otolaryngology and respiratory physiology research. It focuses on advanced research topics, such as virtual surgery, AI-assisted clinical applications and therapy, as well as the latest computational modeling techniques, controversies, challenges and future directions in simulation using CFD software. Presenting perspectives and insights from computational experts and clinical specialists (ENT) combined with technical details of the computational modeling techniques from engineers, this unique reference book will give direction to and inspire future research in this emerging field.
This book advances systems thinking by introducing a new philosophy of systemic knowing. It argues that there are inescapable limits to rational understanding. Humankind has always depended on extended ways of knowing to complement the rational-analytic approach. The book establishes that the application of such methods is fundamental to systemic practice.
The author advocates embracing two modes of consciousness: intentionality, which Western philosophy has long recognized, and non-intentional awareness, which Eastern philosophy additionally highlights. The simultaneity of these two modes of consciousness, and the variety of knowings they spawn are harnessed for a more holistic, systemic knowing.
Four practices from fields related to systems thinking are examined: two contemporary action research methodologies from the US and the UK; the Sumedhian (Indian) approach to inquiry about processes within groups; and a technique of group psychotherapy originating in Eastern Europe. Each of these systematically harnesses knowing using both modes of consciousness. Therefore, the author insists, such approaches must be included in systemic practice, in purposeful and methodical juxtaposition to rational-analytic ways. The book provides examples and guidelines for deployment.
"All researchers and practitioners of systems thinking and action research must read this book...Raghav has craftfully blended Eastern and Western wisdom. He uses his immersion into Eastern ways of knowing practically, to elaborate the systems philosophy in rich detail. He has incorporated, from cooperative inquiry as action research, the idea of four ways of knowing: practical, propositional, presentational and experiential, to bolster the foundations of systems thinking"?SHANKAR SANKARAN, Professor, University of Technology Sydney, Australia; President International Society of Systems Sciences (ISSS) 2019-2020
"This is a book with the potential to stimulate the emergence of a new paradigm. Raghav shows that systems thinking can transcend rational analysis and incorporate other ways of knowing, such as arts-based methods... also, rather than be overly preoccupied with striving for change, there is value in simply abiding, which comes with a deep appreciation of the ecological relationships we are part of. It's not that rational analysis is wrong - it's that it is only part of a genuinely transformative practice". ?GERALD MIDGLEY, Co-Director, Centre for Systems Studies, University of Hull; former President, ISSS (2013-14)
"Raghav Rajagopalan's writing on generating deep appreciation for the social and ecological interdependencies ties in closely with my own work. The philosophical ideas he develops contain the tracings and essential tones of Gregory Bateson's idea of "Mind" as a process of living complexities reaching well beyond the notion of the body. This book demonstrates outstanding erudition and deep compassion at the same time. It should delight the adventurous reader unafraid of big questions".?NORA BATESON, President of the International Bateson Institute
The book focuses on symplectic pseudospectral methods for nonlinear optimal control problems and their applications. Both the fundamental principles and engineering practice are addressed. Symplectic pseudospectral methods for nonlinear optimal control problems with complicated factors (i.e., inequality constraints, state-delay, unspecific terminal time, etc.) are solved under the framework of indirect methods. The methods developed here offer a high degree of computational efficiency and accuracy when compared with popular direct pseudospectral methods. The methods are applied to solve optimal control problems arising in various engineering fields, particularly in path planning problems for autonomous vehicles. Given its scope, the book will benefit researchers, engineers and graduate students in the fields of automatic control, path planning, ordinary differential equations, etc.
We are especially pleased to present our edited book in an area that is quickly emerging as one of the most active research areas that integrate both engineering and medicine. Preliminary research results show signi?cant potential in effecting major breakthroughsranging from a reduction in the number of corrective surgeries needed to the `scienti?c miracle' of generating tissue growth. Over $600 million has been in invested in tissue engineering last year alone-a large and signi?cant component of this is in the area of virtual and physical prototyping. Virtual & Physical prototyping can broadly be divided into three categories: Modeling, Manufacturing& Materials. This book focuses on the ?rst part and some areas of the second.The second bookin this series will focuson the areas in the s- ondandthird categories.As youwill see fromthis book,the principlesutilizeddraw heavily from the more traditional engineering?elds including mechanical engine- ing, industrial engineering, civil engineering (structures), electrical engineering and bio engineering. The ?rst chapter by Winder provides an insight into the practicalities of creating custom made implants for the skull details. The concept of cranioplasty, describing the correction of a bone defect or deformity in the cranium using a bio-compatible material, is described and explored from a computational point of view In Chapter 2, Ming Leu and his group of researchers review the use of virtual reality technology for the development of a virtual bone surgery system, which can be used for training in orthopedic surgery and planning of bone surgery procedures.
This book examines the challenges for the life insurance sector in Europe arising from new technologies, socio-cultural and demographic trends, and the financial crisis. It presents theoretical and applied research in all areas related to life insurance products and markets, and explores future determinants of the insurance industry's development by highlighting novel solutions in insurance supervision and trends in consumer protection. Drawing on their academic and practical expertise, the contributors identify problems relating to risk analysis and evaluation, demographic challenges, consumer protection, product distribution, mortality risk modeling, applications of life insurance in contemporary pension systems, financial stability and solvency of life insurers. They also examine the impact of population aging on life insurance markets and the role of digitalization. Lastly, based on an analysis of early experiences with the implementation of the Solvency II system, the book provides policy recommendations for the development of life insurance in Europe.
The volume examines the state-of-the-art of productivity and efficiency analysis. It brings together a selection of the best papers from the 10th North American Productivity Workshop. By analyzing world-wide perspectives on challenges that local economies and institutions may face when changes in productivity are observed, readers can quickly assess the impact of productivity measurement, productivity growth, dynamics of productivity change, measures of labor productivity, measures of technical efficiency in different sectors, frontier analysis, measures of performance, industry instability and spillover effects.
The contributions in this volume focus on the theory and application of economics, econometrics, statistics, management science and operational research related to problems in the areas of productivity and efficiency measurement. Popular techniques and methodologies including stochastic frontier analysis and data envelopment analysis are represented. Chapters also cover broader issues related to measuring, understanding, incentivizing and improving the productivity and performance of firms, public services, and industries.
The book presents a world-system study based in neomedieval thinking. By utilizing this stream, it frees itself from the Westphalian lens while keeping itself firmly rooted in an empirical analysis. The book divides the world into three ideal-type geopolitical settings that interact among each other, which, in turn, affects geopolitical actors located inside them. It allows the reader to obtain an alternative understanding of the dynamic geopolitical environment of the contemporary world.
The three main sections of the book contain the development of the theoretical model, empirical analysis of the global political map, and analysis of the impacts of the application of the theoretical model for the understanding of the global system. The book raises the question of conceptualization of the contemporary global order and answers it by dividing the map of the world into the three spheres and analyzing the impact of such an understanding of the world system. Spatial analysis is utilized to present the consequences of the analytical division of the global system into three ideal-types. The case studies are selected not to test the theory at hand, but to better illustrate the impacts as to make the case as clear to the readers as possible.
This volume explores from a legal perspective, how blockchain works. Perhaps more than ever before, this new technology requires us to take a multidisciplinary approach. The contributing authors, which include distinguished academics, public officials from important national authorities, and market operators, discuss and demonstrate how this technology can be a driver of innovation and yield positive effects in our societies, legal systems and economic/financial system. In particular, they present critical analyses of the potential benefits and legal risks of distributed ledger technology, while also assessing the opportunities offered by blockchain, and possible modes of regulating it. Accordingly, the discussions chiefly focus on the law and governance of blockchain, and thus on the paradigm shift that this technology can bring about.
This thesis deals with the development and in-depth study of a new class of optoelectronic material platform comprising graphene and MoS_2, in which MoS_2 is used essentially to sensitize graphene and lead to unprecedently high gain and novel opto-electronic memory effects. The results presented here open up the possibility of designing a new class of photosensitive devices which can be utilized in various optoelectronic applications including biomedical sensing, astronomical sensing, optical communications, optical quantum information processing and in applications requiring low intensity photodetection and number resolved single photon detection.
This book looks at marginality from a less conventional perspective by analyzing complex social, cultural, political and economic relations between the aspects of globalization and various forms of marginalization. It focuses specifically on the conflict potential that results from the globalization-driven inequality and marginalization of many segments of societies. This view is further illustrated in sections on border regions, identity issues, minorities and poverty. The book gives a comprehensive but in-depth analysis of the various aspects of the relations between globalization, marginalization and conflict issues, based on a number of case studies and regions worldwide. It shows how the same issues of globalization and marginalization manifest themselves in different ways under different circumstance, obviously requiring different solutions. Based on original research, this book provides new insights on the globalization-marginalization relations and a good resource to academics, scientists and students in various fields of social, political science and humanities.