Data mining essentially relies on several mathematical disciplines, many of which are presented in this second edition of this book. Topics include partially ordered sets, combinatorics, general topology, metric spaces, linear spaces, graph theory. To motivate the reader a significant number of applications of these mathematical tools are included ranging from association rules, clustering algorithms, classification, data constraints, logical data analysis, etc. The book is intended as a reference for researchers and graduate students. The current edition is a significant expansion of the first edition. We strived to make the book self-contained and only a general knowledge of mathematics is required. More than 700 exercises are included and they form an integral part of the material. Many exercises are in reality supplemental material and their solutions are included.
This volume was born from the experience of the authors as researchers and educators,whichsuggeststhatmanystudentsofdataminingarehandicapped in their research by the lack of a formal, systematic education in its mat- matics. The data mining literature contains many excellent titles that address the needs of users with a variety of interests ranging from decision making to p- tern investigation in biological data. However, these books do not deal with the mathematical tools that are currently needed by data mining researchers and doctoral students. We felt it timely to produce a book that integrates the mathematics of data mining with its applications. We emphasize that this book is about mathematical tools for data mining and not about data mining itself; despite this, a substantial amount of applications of mathematical c- cepts in data mining are presented. The book is intended as a reference for the working data miner. In our opinion, three areas of mathematics are vital for data mining: set theory,includingpartially orderedsetsandcombinatorics;linear algebra,with its many applications in principal component analysis and neural networks; and probability theory, which plays a foundational role in statistics, machine learning and data mining. Thisvolumeisdedicatedtothestudyofset-theoreticalfoundationsofdata mining. Two further volumes are contemplated that will cover linear algebra and probability theory. The ?rst part of this book, dedicated to set theory, begins with a study of functionsandrelations.Applicationsofthesefundamentalconceptstosuch- sues as equivalences and partitions are discussed. Also, we prepare the ground for the following volumes by discussing indicator functions, ?elds and?-?elds, and other concepts.