This book provides a deep insight to which extent further improvement should be envisaged to ensure and improve the sustainable development beyond 2030 (the Sustainable Development Goals is a set of 17 global goals with 169 associated targets which the state community adopted in 2015). As the world, its environment, economy and society is getting more and more technical advanced, it is of high interest to analyze how space and its various applications can support this development. Once the Goals of the "2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" will be achieved new challenges are waiting. The analysis takes into account a proactive use of artificial intelligence for the development based on space infrastructure. Another important aspect revolves around the economic development which asks for further analysis of the cryptocurrencies relationship with space applications and how to use space based cryptocurrencies for development. Environment-wise the challenges for a sustainable development on Earth i.e. water supply, but also in outer space are requested ensuring a sustainable exploration and exploitation of space and its orbital resources. The book also highlights possible contributions of the post-2030 space industry to global economic development based on satellite technology and the enlargement of the scope of application of satellite data in administration and Justice to ensure development of effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels to promote growth, stability and security and peace on global level.
On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Outer Space Treaty this book gives a first insight into where the next generation considers room for further improvement of the Outer Space Treaty in order to cope with upcoming aspects such as providing solutions for the emerging commercial, economic, environmental and social questions. At the time of the adoption of the Outer Space Treaty in 1967 the purpose of this treaty was to avoid conflicting military situations in space. However, 50 years later the Outer Space Treaty is in demand to meet the ever increasing space activities and the different actors involved such as the rise of the private sector players.
The book speaks to the need for a regulatory framework with regards to space resource utilization. In doing so, significant elements of the subject matter have been explored, taking into account the different phases of a space mission and the perspectives of the various actors and participants in the space arena. The book tackles the subject matter from a number of angles. An analysis of the current national and international governance frameworks is performed, with regards to resource extraction and utilization in space. The view of established and emerging space nations is analyzed next, specifically with extraction and utilization in mind, and in light of the new United State (US) Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act (CSLCA) of 2015. A brief analysis of the various budgets allocated to space exploration is given.
This book provides detailed insights into how space and popular culture intersect across a broad spectrum of examples, including cinema, music, art, arcade games, cartoons, comics, and advertisements. This is a pertinent topic since the use of space themes differs in different cultural contexts, and these themes can be used to explore various aspects of the human condition and provide a context for social commentary on politically sensitive issues. With the use of space imagery evolving over the past sixty years of the space age, this is a topic ripe for in-depth exploration. The book also discusses the contrasting visions of space from the late 19th and early 20th centuries and the reality of today, and analyzes space vehicles and habitats in popular depictions of space from an engineering perspective, exploring how many of those ideas have actually been implemented in practice, and why or why not (a case of life imitating art and vice versa). As such, it covers a wide array of relevant and timely topics examining intersections between space and popular culture, and offering accounts of space and its effect on culture, language, and storytelling from the southern regions of the world.
This book shares a range of new and diverse insights on On-Orbit Servicing (OOS), and examines its implications especially from political, legal, economic, and security perspectives. OSS has been evolving rapidly and presents both challenges and opportunities, such as in-space repairs, refuelling, refurbishment of spacecraft and servicing satellites, which could play a critical role in extending satellite lifecycles, while also representing a valuable next step in debris mitigation.
At the same time, many legal questions have arisen in connection with OOS: the need to prevent hostile actions under the pretext of OSS; the distinction between governmental and non-governmental OOS operators; the status of re-worked and recycled space objects; the issue of control in terms of operations performed in orbit, i.e., in the international sphere; the status of objects manufactured in orbit and applicable law, including liability and registration; and the impacts on insurance law and risk management. Finally, the book examines the implications of OOS for emerging space actors in the Global South, and recommends a paradigm shift to help developing countries fully recognise the necessity and urgency of being involved in discussions on OSS, as opposed to leaving it up to the developed space actors. This book will be of great interest to practitioners, academics, and students working in the space sector and related fields.
This book provides an extensive overview of the protection of cultural heritages sites on the Moon (humanity's lunar heritage) and the various threats they face. First of all, the international legal framework, especially the relevant space treaties are analyzed in terms of how they protect cultural heritages sites on the Moon. In turn, the book explores key aspects like the application of customary law, the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, or the Underwater Convention, and the possibility of adding these sites to UNESCO's World Heritage list. The book subsequently addresses the question of how to define culture heritage sites or artifacts, in particular in view of the "Outstanding Universal Value" criterion, which is a vital aspect in order to differentiate them from space garbage or even space threats. Lastly, the book proposes and elaborates on various protection systems and multilateral protection regulations. Especially now, 50 years after the first human landing on the Moon, the book is a timely publication that will be of interest to all scholars and professionals working in the space field.
This book is based on an initiative made by the European Space Policy Institute, the European Centre for Space Law and the German Aerospace Center. Students and young professionals worlwide were invited to submit a paper on this topic analyzing and discussing relevant aspects on either environment, economy, security, licencing, or control. The best papers have been included in this volume.
This peer-reviewed book presents a comprehensive overview of the role space is playing in enabling Latin America to fulfill its developmental aspirations. Following on from the highly acclaimed Part 1, it explains how space and its applications can be used to support the development of the full range and diversity of Latin America societies, while being driven by Latin American goals. The Latin American space sector is currently undergoing a phase of rapid and dynamic expansion, with new actors entering the field and with space applications increasingly being used to support the continent's social, economic, and political development. All across Latin America, attention is shifting to space as a fundamental part of the continental development agenda, and the creation of a Latin American space agency is evidence of this. Additionally, while in recent years, significant advances in economic and social development have lifted many of Latin America's people out of poverty, there is still much that needs to be done to fulfill the basic needs of the population and to afford them the dignity they deserve. To this end, space is already being employed in diverse fields of human endeavor to serve Latin America's goals for its future, but there is still a need for further incorporation of space systems and data. This book will appeal to researchers, professionals and students in fields such as space studies, international relations, governance, and social and rural development.
This book provides detailed insights into how space and its applications are, and can be, used to support the development of the full range and diversity of African societies, as encapsulated in the African Union's Agenda 2063. Like previous books in the "Southern Space Studies" series, it focuses on the role of space in supporting the UN Sustainable Development Goals in Africa, but it covers an even more extensive array of relevant and timely topics addressing all facets of African development. It demonstrates that, while great achievements have been made in recent years in terms of economic and social development, which has lifted many of Africa's people out of poverty, there is still much that needs to be done to fulfill the basic needs of Africa's citizens and afford them the dignity they deserve: to this end space is already being employed in diverse fields of human endeavor to serve Africa's goals for its future, but there is much room for further incorporation of space systems and data. Providing a comprehensive overview of the role space is playing in achieving Africa's developmental aspirations, the book is of great interest to both students and professionals in fields such as space studies, international relations, governance, social and rural development, and many others.
The book analyzes the various legal and political concepts to resolve the problem of the existing space debris in outer space and which measures have been taken to avoid space debris or to reduce potential space debris in the course of future space missions.
From a scientific and technical point of view various studies are ongoing to analyze the feasibility of active debris removal. Nevertheless it has to be highlighted that outer space is an international area where various actors with different legal and political concepts are operating, a situation that leads to different approaches concerning such activities.
This book is dedicated to the nascent discussion of the legal aspects of human exploration and possible settlement of Mars, and provides fresh insights and new ideas in two key areas. The first one revolves around the broader aspects of current space law, such as intellectual property rights in outer space, the legal implications of contact with extra-terrestrial intelligence, legal considerations around the freedom of exploration and use, and the International Space Station agreement as a precedent for Mars. The second one focuses on the creation and management of a new society on Mars, and includes topics such as human reproduction and childbirth, the protection of human rights in privately-funded settlements, legal aspects of a Martian power grid, and criminal justice on the red planet. With multiple national space agencies and commercial enterprises focusing on Mars, it is more than likely that a human presence will be established on the red planet in the coming decades. While the foundation of international space law, laid primarily by the Outer Space Treaty, remains the framework within which humans will engage with Mars, new and unforeseen challenges have arisen, driven particularly by the rapid pace of technological advancement in recent years. To ensure that space law can keep up with these developments, a new scholarly work such as the present one is critical. By bringing together a number of fresh international perspectives on the topic, the book is of interest to all scholars and professionals working in the space field.
This book provides a detailed insight into how space and its applications are embedded, and can be further embedded, into African society in support of the SDGs, while taking into account the specific features, needs, and diversity of that society.
Contributions drawn from across the continent and further afield provide analyses of the particular social situations in a variety of different African countries and regions, and highlight areas where space applications support the SDGs, and where they can further do so. The chapters cover a wide array of relevant and timely topics including basic needs like water quality, education, and capacity building, as well as financial, security, and legal aspects, together with facets of space technologies and infrastructure in Africa. Embedding Space in African Society will be of great interest to students and professionals in sustainable development, governance, and space studies.
This book provides an overview of the space sector in African countries, from a legal and policy point of view, analysing how the African Union's Space Policy and Strategy (ASPS) is implemented and highlighting the various space activities in each country. Against this backdrop, it investigates the ASPS, identifying its policy goals identified and discussing its strategy. Moreover, it explores the on-going regional cooperation programmes, the continent's leading space actors and their roles, and the space-related regional fora and organizations, reflecting on various initiatives, including the African Leadership Conference on Space Science and Technology for Sustainable Development (ALC), the Regional African Satellite Communications Organisation (RASCOM), and the African Resource Management Satellite Constellation (ARMS-C). As such, it is a valuable source of information on space capacities in African countries.
Africa faces numerous challenges relating to good governance due to its vast and diverse landscape, as well as its history. This book explores the role of space-based applications in supporting African good governance by strengthening civil society, bolstering democratic processes and advancing socio-economic development. The increased use of such applications can accelerate Africa's progress towards the United Nations Agenda 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, as well as the African Union's Agenda 2063 aspirations
This book examines key challenges facing governance within African to provide an accurate account of the current African context. It discusses specific examples of e-governance and digital solutions that leverage space-based technologies and have been successfully implemented in both the developed and developing world. In the context of the numerous satellite constellations being deployed to provide affordable Internet connectivity globally, it examines the major actors in this sector and presents additional governance solutions based on remote sensing and Earth observation data.
Given its scope, the book will be of interest to professionals and students in the fields of development, governance and space studies.
In this book the background and context of Africa's political and socio-economic landscape is presented and unpacked through a primary needs approach which focuses on climate, biodiversity, health, water, education, and space-related capacity building. African theoretical contributions from the International Relations field are discussed, and Africa's new Space Policy and Strategy, along with debates around the establishment of an African Space Agency, are explored. The African International Space Ecosystem is then analyzed, including its dimensions of intra-African space relations and initiatives, African participation in COPUOS, and international space activities, agreements, and initiatives in Africa. The final part is dedicated to the national space infrastructure and activities of African states.
?This book addresses the need to support decision-makers across Africa by promoting awareness of the importance of space technologies and data to African development through the presentation of existing examples where space supports education and healthcare, and by making recommendations for further roll-out of these efforts. This is necessary because of the enduring misconception that space-related research and expenditure competes with other, more pressing, needs on the continent, when in truth space can play a major role in meeting these needs.Accordingly, the book unpacks the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 and the critical needs they address in the African context. Secondly, it provides an analysis of the African higher education landscape and considers the network of higher education-related SDGs, their targets, and their indicators. Africa's own development plan, Agenda 2063, is also explored. The African higher education landscape is then assessed by way of three models - the Space-Education Equation (SEE), the Benefits to Education by Space Transection (BEST), and the Enhanced Education for Sustainable Development Access and Success (EESDAS) model. The critical role of educational technologies and e-learning in bridging the educational access and success gap is appraised, as is the role of the space sector, and its technologies, applications, and data in African higher education. Finally, it explores e-health and provides an analysis of pertinent technologies required by e-health, past and present, and the opportunities and challenges it presents. Space technology can play a critical role in eliminating the barriers that are currently preventing e-health from playing a more significant role in a developing region such as sub-Saharan Africa.
This book examines the background and context of Latin America's political and socioeconomic landscape with a focus on space activities. Firstly, it discusses Latin America's contribution to this sector from an international relations perspective, and explores the debates around the establishment of a Latin American Space Agency. It then highlights space-related capacity building, Latin America's participation in UNCOPUOS, and international space activities, agreements, and initiatives in Latin America. The second part is devoted to the national space infrastructures and space activities of Latin American states. It analyzes various spacefaring countries in the context of their intra-regional space relations and initiatives as well as their bi-lateral cooperation programs. This timely book is of interest to scholars and professionals working in the space field, especially those in Latin America and other emerging countries.
This book provides a unique in-depth comparative and evaluative analysis based upon primary sources. Therefore, it does not only provide a more complete understanding of the subject compared to other publications but, because it provides a full perspective, can also serve as a basis for further research. The interest in national space legislation, and the importance thereof to regulating space activities conducted by private entities, gives a clear incentive to conduct a comparative analysis of the national space legislation of various states. The purpose of this report is to provide such a comparative analysis that will detail the similarities and differences between the national space laws of selected states with a focus on European comprehensive national space legislation. The states discussed are: Sweden, the United Kingdom, Australia, China, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Austria, Indonesia, Denmark, New Zealand and Luxembourg. This report is intended to assist the efforts of states that are seeking to enact or revise national space legislation not only by presenting the approaches taken by other states, but also by presenting, as far as possible, the rationale behind their approaches. The readership of this book consists of academics and professionals in space law and can further assist policymakers wishing to revise or enact national space legislation.
This book stems from the worrying scale and intensity of conflicts, humanitarian crises, and human rights violations around the world, which can be seen in a wide range of global hotspots including Venezuela, Yemen, Syria, Myanmar, Sudan, Eritrea, and numerous others. These developments are also relevant for Europe, given the large-scale migrations they can produce. In order to effectively respond to them, it has become imperative to analyse ways in which space data and technologies can be used to uphold human rights and monitor violations. Various international tribunals, such as the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and the International Criminal Court (ICC), are increasingly relying on satellite data and especially images when considering human rights violations cases. This use of space-related technologies represents a trend that promises to continue as the range and accuracy of space-derived data improves. Further, satellite data has important legal implications because it allows the fulfilment of international obligations to be monitored, and offers a powerful tool for dispute resolution.
Accordingly, this book examines the use of satellite images for cases concerning human rights violations, since the multitude of humanitarian crises worldwide demonstrate that it is of the utmost importance to analyse how space law, policies and space-related applications could further support the implementation and monitoring of the observance of human rights, thus contributing to enhanced security and sustainable development. A range of relevant areas, such as migration, refugees (including settlements and whether they are adequately supplied with basic necessities), water distribution and quality, housing and settlement monitoring are crucial aspects addressed in this book. In closing, the use of satellite data for legal purposes is not without its fair share of problems and concerns, which are also considered to guide the evolution of this emerging field.
This book provides a detailed analysis on the history and development of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNCOPUOS) and the Conference on Disarmament (CD) and the coordination and cooperation between these two fora. Furthermore, it discusses the future challenges that these fora will have to deal with and conclude in which way the current system can change to cope with the evolution of space matters. This is necessary for the proper discussion of space matters because these matters cannot simply be divided between military and non-military, but are interrelated.