• Le pouvoir de l'art Nouv.

    Le pouvoir de l'art

    Markus Gabriel

    Le regard exercé ou curieux, vous pensiez peut-être qu'en vous rendant à une exposition vous alliez voir des oeuvres d'art exposées à votre attention.
    C'était vrai jusqu'à ce que Markus Gabriel s'en mêle.
    Le jeune prodige de la philosophie allemande le démontre avec virtuosité : ce n'est pas vous qui décidez si ce que vous voyez est une oeuvre d'art, ni même l'artiste ou les collectionneurs, encore moins les critiques d'art ou de cinéma. C'est l'oeuvre elle-même qui prend possession de vous. Car c'est vous qui vous exposez à elle et non l'inverse. Le Penseur de Rodin vous fait penser et Alien fait de vous l'hôte du film étrange que vous regardez.
    Par cet essai incisif, l'auteur bouscule notre rapport à l'art, en nous révélant son immense pouvoir, pour le meilleur et pour le pire.

  • Comment la philosophie met au défi l'intelligence artificielle
    Qu'est-ce que penser  ? Cette interrogation, aussi vieille que la philosophie, n'a rien perdu de son intérêt. Au contraire  : à l'âge numérique, où l'on identifie souvent la pensée à l'intelligence artificielle, la question est plus actuelle que jamais. Le philosophe Markus Gabriel nous invite à penser à propos de la pensée, et nous explique pourquoi la pensée humaine ne sera jamais remplacée par des machines intelligentes. Dans ce livre incisif, mêlant comme à son habitude théories philosophiques et références culturelles contemporaines, Markus Gabriel prend résolument parti sur l'une des plus importantes discussions de notre temps.
      Traduit de l'allemand par Georges Sturm
     

  • « Mon but est de défendre la liberté de l'esprit. »
    La conscience humaine fait partie des derniers mystères non encore résolus. Le Moi n'est-il déterminé que par de la biochimie ? N'est-il que l'interface de notre cerveau, une sorte de scène de théâtre sur laquelle se joue une pièce que nous ne pouvons pas mettre en scène librement ? C'est ce que prétend le neurocentrisme. Cette doctrine issue des sciences de la nature part de l'hypothèse que le Moi est identique au cerveau.
    Markus Gabriel émet des doutes légitimes. Contre cette thèse rendant impossible toute connaissance de soi, il défend le libre-arbitre et nous livre une introduction à une réflexion philosophique moderne sur notre conscience.
    Avec verve et humour, il s'attaque à l'image scientifique du monde et nous invite à réfléchir à ce que nous sommes - grâce à Kant, Schopenhauer et Nagel, mais aussi en compagnie du Dr. Who, de The Walking Dead et de Fargo.
    Traduit de l'allemand par Georges Sturm

  • « La vie, l'univers et tout le reste... chacun d'entre nous s'est probablement déjà souvent posé la question de savoir ce que tout cela veut dire au juste. Où nous trouvons-nous ? Ne sommes-nous qu'un agrégat de particules élémentaires dans un gigantesque réceptacle qui contient le monde ? (...)
    Je vais développer dans ce livre le principe d'une philosophie nouvelle qui part d'une idée fondamentale simple : le monde n'existe pas. Comme vous le verrez, cela ne signifie pas qu'il n'existe absolument rien. Notre planète existe, mes rêves, l'évolution, les chasses d'eau dans les toilettes, la chute des cheveux, les espoirs, les particules élémentaires et même des licornes sur la lune, pour ne citer que quelques exemples. Le principe qui énonce que le monde n'existe pas implique que tout le reste existe. Je peux donc d'ores et déjà laisser entrevoir que je vais affirmer que tout existe, excepté le monde. » Markus Gabriel
    Traduit de l'allemand par Georges Sturm

  • Dans ce livre très original, Markus Gabriel avance une théorie du soi humain qui surmonte les blocages inhérents aux positions standards en philosophie de l'esprit contemporaine. Son point de vue, le néo-existentialisme, est intégralement antinaturaliste, en ce sens qu'il rejette toute théorie selon laquelle l'ensemble de nos meilleures connaissances scientifiques naturelles serait pleinement capable de rendre compte de l'esprit humain. L'auteur montre plutôt que l'esprit humain consiste en une prolifération ouverte de vocabulaires mentalistes. Leur rôle dans la forme de vie humaine consiste à rendre compte du fait que l'être humain ne se fond pas simplement dans la nature inanimée et le reste du règne animal. Les humains s'appuient sur un autoportrait qui les situe dans un contexte aussi large que possible au sein de l'univers. Ce qui distingue cet autoportrait de notre connaissance de la réalité naturelle, c'est que nous changeons en vertu de nos croyances, vraies ou fausses, au sujet de nous-mêmes.

  • The Meaning of Thought

    Markus Gabriel

    • Polity
    • 3 Décembre 2020

    From populist propaganda attacking knowledge as `fake news' to the latest advances in artificial intelligence, human thought is under unprecedented attack today. If computers can do what humans can do and they can do it much faster, what's so special about human thought? 
    In this new book, bestselling philosopher Markus Gabriel steps back from the polemics to re-examine the very nature of human thought. He conceives of human thinking as a `sixth sense', a kind of sense organ that is closely tied our biological reality as human beings. Our thinking is not a form of data processing but rather the linking together of images and imaginary ideas which we process in different sensory modalities. Our time frame expands far beyond the present moment, as our ideas and beliefs stretch far beyond the here and now. We are living beings and the whole of evolution is built into our life story. In contrast to some of the exaggerated claims made by proponents of AI, Gabriel argues that our thinking is a complex structure and organic process that is not easily replicated and very far from being superseded by computers. 
    With his usual wit and intellectual verve, Gabriel combines philosophical insight with pop culture to set out a bold defence of the human and a plea for an enlightened humanism for the 21st century. This timely book will be of great value to anyone interested in the nature of human thought and the relations between human beings and machines in an age of rapid technological change.

  • Where do we come from? Are we merely a cluster of elementary particles in a gigantic world receptacle? And what does it all mean? In this highly original new book, the philosopher Markus Gabriel challenges our notion of what exists and what it means to exist. He questions the idea that there is a world that encompasses everything like a container life, the universe, and everything else. This all-inclusive being does not exist and cannot exist. For the world itself is not found in the world. And even when we think about the world, the world about which we think is obviously not identical with the world in which we think. For, as we are thinking about the world, this is only a very small event in the world. Besides this, there are still innumerable other objects and events: rain showers, toothaches and the World Cup. Drawing on the recent history of philosophy, Gabriel asserts that the world cannot exist at all, because it is not found in the world. Yet with the exception of the world, everything else exists; even unicorns on the far side of the moon wearing police uniforms. Revelling in witty thought experiments, word play, and the courage of provocation, Markus Gabriel demonstrates the necessity of a questioning mind and the role that humour can play in coming to terms with the abyss of human existence.

  • Neo-Existentialism

    Markus Gabriel

    • Polity
    • 26 Novembre 2018

    In this highly original book, Markus Gabriel offers an account of the human self that overcomes the deadlocks inherent in the standard positions of contemporary philosophy of mind. His view, Neo-Existentialism, is thoroughly anti-naturalist in that it repudiates any theory according to which the ensemble of our best natural-scientific knowledge is able to account fully for human mindedness. Instead, he shows that human mindedness consists in an open-ended proliferation of mentalistic vocabularies. Their role in the human life form consists in making sense of the fact that the human being does not merely blend in with inanimate nature and the rest of the animal kingdom. Humans rely on a self-portrait that locates them in the broadest conceivable context of the universe. What distinguishes this self-portrait from our knowledge of natural reality is that we change in light of our true and false beliefs about the human being.
    Gabriel's argument is challenged in this volume by Charles Taylor, Andrea Kern and Jocelyn Benoist. In defending his argument against these and other objections and in spelling out his theory of self-constitution, Gabriel refutes naturalism's metaphysical claim to epistemic exclusiveness and opens up new paths for future self-knowledge beyond the contemporary ideology of the scientific worldview.

  • The Power of Art

    Markus Gabriel

    • Polity
    • 4 Août 2020

    We live in an era of aesthetics. Art has become both pervasive and powerful - it is displayed not only in museums and galleries but also on the walls of corporations and it is increasingly fused with design. But what makes art so powerful, and in what does its power consist?  
    According to a widespread view, the power of art - its beauty - lies in the eye of the beholder. What counts as art appears to be a function of individual acts of evaluation supported by powerful institutions. On this account, the power of art stems from a force that is not itself aesthetic, such as the art market and the financial power of speculators. Art expresses, in a disguised form, the power of something else - like money - that lies behind it. In one word, art has lost its autonomy. 
    In this short book, Markus Gabriel rejects this view.  He argues that art is essentially uncontrollable. It is in the nature of the work of art to be autonomous to such a degree that the art world will never manage to overpower it. Ever since the cave paintings of Lascaux, art has taken hold of the human mind and implemented itself in our very being. Thanks to the emergence of art we became human beings, that is, beings who lead their lives in light of an image of the human being and its position in the world and in relation to other species. Due to its structural, ontological power, art itself is and remains radically autonomous. Yet, this power is highly ambiguous, as we cannot control its unfolding. 
    In this book, a leading proponent of New Realism applies this philosophical perspective to art to create a new aesthetic realism.

  • I am Not a Brain

    Markus Gabriel

    • Polity
    • 18 Septembre 2017

    Many consider the nature of human consciousness to be one of the last great unsolved mysteries.  Why should the light turn on, so to speak, in human beings at all?  And how is the electrical storm of neurons under our skull connected with our consciousness?  Is the self only our brain's user interface, a kind of stage on which a show is performed that we cannot freely direct? 
    In this book, philosopher Markus Gabriel challenges an increasing trend in the sciences towards neurocentrism, a notion which rests on the assumption that the self is identical to the brain. Gabriel raises serious doubts as to whether we can know ourselves in this way. In a sharp critique of this approach, he presents a new defense of the free will and provides a timely introduction to philosophical thought about the self - all with verve, humor, and surprising insights.
    Gabriel criticizes the scientific image of the world and takes us on an eclectic journey of self-reflection by way of such concepts as self, consciousness, and freedom, with the aid of Kant, Schopenhauer, and Nagel but also Dr. Who, The Walking Dead, and Fargo.

  • The Limits of Epistemology

    Markus Gabriel

    • Polity
    • 14 Janvier 2020

    At the centre of modern epistemology lurks the problem of scepticism: how can we know that the forms of our cognition are compatible with the world? How can we state success conditions for knowledge claims without somehow transcending our discursive and fallible nature as knowers?
    By distinguishing different forms of scepticism, Markus Gabriel shows how all objective knowledge relies on shared discourses and how the essential corrigibility of knowledge claims is a crucial condition of their objectivity. We should understand scepticism not so much as posing a threat, but as offering a vital lesson about the fallibility of discursive thinking. By heeding this lesson, we can begin to reintegrate the solipsistic subject of modern epistemology back into the community of actual knowers.
    Taking his cue from Hegel, Wittgenstein and Brandom, Gabriel shows how intentionality as such is a public rather than a private phenomenon. He concedes that the sceptic can prove the necessary finitude of objective knowledge, but denies that this has to lead us into an aporia. Instead, it shows us the limits of the modern project of epistemology.
    Through an examination of different kinds of sceptical paradoxes, Gabriel not only demonstrates their indispensable role within epistemological theorising, but also argues for the necessary failure of all totalizing knowledge claims. In this way, epistemology, as the discipline that claims knowledge about knowledge, begins to grasp its own fallibility and, as a result, the true nature of its objectivity. 
    The Limits of Epistemology will be of great value to students and scholars of philosophy.

  • This book presents the latest research, conducted by leading philosophers and scientists from various fields, on the topic of top-down causation. The chapters combine to form a unique, interdisciplinary perspective, drawing upon George Ellis's extensive research and novel perspectives on topics including downwards causation, weak and strong emergence, mental causation, biological relativity, effective field theory and levels in nature. The collection also serves as a Festschrift in honour of George Ellis' 80th birthday. The extensive and interdisciplinary scope of this book makes it vital reading for anyone interested in the work of George Ellis and current research on the topics of causation and emergence.

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