This book provides an indispensable reference guide to the sustainable control and treatment of biomass residues from a wide variety of agroindustrial sources, e.g. sugarcane, livestock, pulp & paper, food wastes, among others.
Pursuing a structured and clear approach, the book opens with a general introduction to biomass, sustainability and environmental chemistry aspects, and on how the use of biomass as a renewable material ties into the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. The book subsequently presents analytical methods applied to different biomass types and their residues and reviews monitoring and treatment strategies in order to avoid pollution of the same. The book closes by describing the value chains, bioeconomy and circular economy for globally relevant agroindustrial biomass.
The book is intended for researchers in academia and industry alike and shows how, in addition to sustainability criteria and life cycle assessments, integrating environmental chemistry aspects can contribute to a holistic approach, and unlock the economic potential of biomass in the age of circular economy and sustainable development.
This book investigates the main vegetable biomass types, their chemical characteristics and their potential to replace oil as raw material for the chemical industry, according to the principles of green chemistry. Authors from different scientific and technical backgrounds, from industry and academia, give an overview of the state of the art and ongoing developments. Aspects including bioeconomy, biorefineries, renewable chemistry and sustainability are also considered, given their relevance in this context. Furthermore, the book reviews green chemistry principles and their relation to biomass, while also exploring the main processes for converting biomass into bioproducts. The need to develop renewable feedstock for the chemical industry to replace oil has been identified as a major strategic challenge for the 21st century. In this context, the use of different types of vegetable biomass - starch, lignocellulosic, oleaginous, saccharide and algae - can be seen as a viable alternative to the use of non-renewable, more expensive raw materials. Furthermore, it offers a model for adding economic value to the agro industrial chains such as soybean, sugarcane, corn and forests, among others. This will in turn contribute to the sustainability of a wide range of chemicals, mainly organics and their transformation processes, which are widely used by modern society.
This book deals with the application of techniques and methods of chemical analysis for the study of biomass and its conversion processes, aiming to fill the current gap in the book literature on the subject.
The use of various techniques and analytical methods is presented and discussed in a straightforward manner, providing the reader with the possibility of choosing the most appropriate methodologies for analysis of the major classes of plant biomass and its products.
In the present volume, a select group of international specialists describes different approaches to understand the biomass structure, their physical and chemical properties, the parameters of conversion processes, the products and by-products formation and quantification, quality parameters, etc.
Modern chemistry plays a strong economic role in industrial activities based on biomass, with an increasing trend of the importance of its application from the deployment of biorefineries and the principles of green chemistry, which make use of the potential of biomass with decreasing impact negative environmental. In this context, analytical chemistry can contribute significantly to the supply chains of biomass, be it plant or animal origin; however, with the first offering the greatest challenges and the greatest opportunity for technical, scientific and economic progress, given its diversified chemical constitution. Thus, the chemical analysis can be used to examine the composition for characterizing physicochemical properties and to monitor their conversion processes, in order to obtain better products and uses of biomass.
The quality of the biomass used determines the product quality. Therefore, reliable information is required about the chemical composition of the biomass to establish the best use (e.g., most suitable conversion process and its conditions), which will influence harvest and preparation steps. Conversion processes should be monitored for their yield, integrity, safety, and environmental impact. Effluent or residues should be monitored and analyzed for environmental control. Co-products need to be monitored to avoid interference with the product yield and product purity; however, co-products are also a good opportunity to add value to the biomass chain. Finally, products need to be monitored and analyzed to determine their yields and purity and to ensure their quality. In this context, analytical chemistry can contribute significantly to the biomass supply chains, be it of plant or animal origin.
This book addresses the highly relevant subject of emerging pollutants, which are especially alarming since most of the available treatment technologies are unable to degrade them. It discusses the sources of these pollutants and their fate in the environment, and the main tools available for their analysis. It also describes the representative environmental matrices (air, soil and water) and appropriate analytical methods for each matrix. Furthermore, it examines aspects of toxicology, chemometrics, sample preparation and green analytical chemistry. As such, it provides a broad overview of the potential analytical approaches for monitoring and controlling emerging pollutants. This book fills a gap in the literature, and is a valuable resource for all professionals concerned with emerging pollutant control in real-world situations.
This book presents a broad range of technologies for sustainable agrochemistry, e.g. semiochemicals for pest management, nanotechnology for release of eco-friendly agrochemicals, and green chemistry principles for agriculture. It provides a concise introduction to sustainable agrochemistry for a professional audience, and highlights the main scientific and technological approaches that can be applied to modern agrochemistry. It also discusses various available technologies for reducing the negative impacts of agrochemicals on the environment and human health.